Annals of Bangladesh Agriculture <p>Published by <a href="">Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University</a><strong>. </strong>Full-text articles available.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence"></a><br>Articles in the Annals of Bangladesh Agriculture are licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a> (CC BY-NC 4.0). This license permits <strong>Share</strong>— copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, <strong>adapt</strong> — remix, transform, and build upon the material as long as it is not for commercial purposes.</p> Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU), Salna, Gazipur, Bangladesh en-US Annals of Bangladesh Agriculture 1025-482X Comparative genomics analyses of fish pathogenic Streptococcus spp. isolated from tilapia and flounder <p>This comparative study was performed to analyze the whole genome sequences of three species of Streptococcus (S. agalactiae, S. iniae and S. parauberis) isolated from Tilapia and Flounder from six different countries (Brazil, China, Israel, South Korea, Taiwan and USA). The objectives were to compare the genomic features, virulence, and antibiotic resistance genes in the genome sequences of 11 isolates of Streptococcus spp. A total of 44 virulence genes were identified in the genomes of 11 strains. These genes are responsible for adherence, various enzyme production, immune evasion, immunoreactive antigen, and toxin production. Eight antibiotic resistance genes were identified in the eleven genome sequences of the Streptococcus sp. strains. All strains of S. agalactiae and S. iniae harbor macrolide resistance gene mreA. Although five secondary metabolites such as Arylpolyene (ary), Type III Polyketide synthases (T3PKS), RiPP-like peptide, linear azol(in)e-containing peptides (LAPs), RaS-RiPP antimicrobial compound, and T3PKS were detected in all 11 genomes; only T3PKS was common in all strains. Additionally, Cas cluster CAS-TypeIC and CAS-TypeIIA were identified among the ten strains of S. agalactiae and S. iniae. The findings indicated that the degree of pathogenicity of Streptococcus sp. remained closer regardless of origin, distribution and host. The results would be useful to understand the virulence factors of the Streptococcus sp. and the antibiotic resistance genes associated with their virulence in fish. </p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2023) 27 (2): 1-18</p> Tasmina Akter Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Abiar Rahman; Tasmina Akter 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 27 2 1 18 10.3329/aba.v27i2.72514 Genetic diversity in maize at germination and seedling stages under simulated drought conditions <p>Ninety seven maize (Zea mays) genotypes were evaluated for germination and early seedling characters under PEG6000 (8%) induced drought stress to identify drought tolerant genotypes. Descriptive statistics for percentage of seed germination and abnormal seedling, shoot length, root length, and shoot dry weight, root dry weight, seedling length, seedling dry weight, and vigor index revealed significant variation among the genotypes studied. The percentage of germination and abnormal seedlings varied greatly among the genotypes. The first and second principal components (PC) of PCA results accounted for 73.15 and 26.85% of the total variation of maize genotypes, respectively. The first PC variation consisted primarily of relative seedling shoot dry weight and relative seedling root dry weight. Cluster analysis grouped the genotypes into four clusters. Cluster III genotypes performed better in terms of relative shoot dry weight, relative root dry weight, and number of abnormal seedlings, indicating drought tolerance. Very poorly performance was shown by genotypes in cluster IV, whereas moderately performance was shown by genotypes in cluster II and I. The clusters differed significantly from one another, according to D<sup>2 </sup>and multivariate analysis. Thirty six genotypes viz. BD-814, BD-810, BD-812, BD-821, BD-815, BD-10015, BD-10238, CML-552, BD-822, BD-826, CML-341, CML-555, CML-591, CML-523, CML-564, BD-817, BD-10018, BD-10240, CML-577, CML-342, CML-556, BD-837, CML-544, BD-827, BD-806, BD-835, BD-840, BD-842, BD-10010, CML-562, BD-10239, BD-10016, CML-593, CML-568 and BD-10234 demonstrated relatively drought tolerance during the germination and early seedling stages might be used in future breeding program.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2023) 27 (2): 19-30</p> Md Abdul Mannan Ferdousi Begum Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Abiar Rahman; Md Abdul Mannan, Ferdousi Begum 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 27 2 19 30 10.3329/aba.v27i2.72515 Prevalence of seed-borne Fusarium in local rice cultivars from Barishal district <p>Seed-borne diseases cause substantial yield loss of rice every year. The present study was conducted to determine the status of seed-borne Fusarium spp. infection in farmers’ saved rice seeds of nine local cultivars collected from all ten upazila of Barishal district. Two fungal species of Fusarium, i.e., Fusarium fujikuroi, and Fusarium equiseti were identified based on morphological characteristics using the blotter method. The highest infection of F. fujikuroi was observed in Babuganj upazila (11.11%), followed by Agailjhara (8.83%). On the other hand, the highest infection of F. equiseti was observed in Bakerganj (8.17%), followed by Mehendiganj (8.05%). The lowest infection of F. fujikuroi and F. equiseti was observed in Muladi, with values of 5.22% and 4.54%, respectively. Among local cultivars, the highest infection of F. fujikuroi (7.11%) was observed in Lalpaika followed by Sakkhorkora (6.83%). On the other hand, the highest infection of F. equiseti was observed in Dudhmona (9.17%) followed by Kajalshail (8.94%). The lowest infection of F. fujikuroi and F. equiseti was observed in the Bhushihara cultivar with the same infestion (4.61%). The prevalence of Fusarium spp. varied with respect to the location of seed collection as well as cultivars. Highest seed germination was observed in Bhushihara (89%) followed by Swarna (87%) and Joyna (85%). Lowest seed germination was observed in Lalpaika (78%). The highest mortality of the seedlings after germination was observed in Lalpaika (24.25%), followed by Dudhmona (23%) and the lowest mortality of the seedlings was observed in Bhushihara (14.75%). Thus, seed germination rate and post-emergence mortality of seedlings were directly associated with seed-borne infection of F. fujikuroi and F. equiseti.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2023) 27 (2): 31-39</p> Md Mejbah Uddin Mubin Abu Ashraf Khan Md Abdul Kader Md Mahidul Islam Masum Md Mahbubur Rahman Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Abiar Rahman; Md Mejbah Uddin Mubin, Abu Ashraf Khan, Md Abdul Kader, Md Mahidul Islam Masum, Md Mahbubur Rahman 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 27 2 31 39 10.3329/aba.v27i2.72516 Screening drought-tolerant bread wheat genotypes using yield-based stress indices <p>Global wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity suffers severely from drought stress. Exploiting natural variation in drought tolerance among genotypes offers a promising avenue to counter yield losses and breed superior varieties. As yield is the key trait in wheat breeding, selecting genotypes based on both yield and drought tolerance indices remain a viable strategy. To identify tolerant genotypes using yield and yield-based indices, a comprehensive investigation was conducted in a factorial fashion of 56 wheat genotypes under two water regimes (control and drought) over two distinct growing years. This approach employed a split-plot design to ensure the statistical robustness of the results. Drought stress significantly reduced grain yield regardless of genotype or growing season. Strong correlations were observed between yields and yield-based drought tolerance indices, with most associations being strongly positive for both control and drought-stressed conditions. Both hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis produced well-correlated results, revealing three distinct genotypic clusters: 6 tolerant and high-yield, 31 mid-tolerant, and 19 susceptible and low-yield genotypes. Statistical analysis showed that eight drought tolerance indices, viz. stress tolerance index (STI), modified stress tolerance index (mSTI), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), harmonic mean index (HMI), relative efficiency index (REI), relative decrease in yield (RDY), and superiority index (Pi) effectively distinguished the genotypic clusters, indicating their usefulness in selecting drought-tolerant and high-yielding wheat genotypes. The genotypes from the tolerant cluster: BARI Gom 33, BARI Gom 21, BAW-1147, BD-9910, BD-600, and BD-9889 exhibited better yield protection under drought stress compared to the other genotypes, demonstrating their potential for cultivation in water-deficit environments.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2023) 27 (2): 41-58</p> Sheikh Faruk Ahmed Anika Nazran Totan Kumar Ghosh Jalal Uddin Ahmed Mohammed Mohi Ud Din Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Abiar Rahman; Sheikh Faruk Ahmed, Anika Nazran, Totan Kumar Ghosh, Jalal Uddin Ahmed, Mohammed Mohi-Ud-Din 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 27 2 41 58 10.3329/aba.v27i2.72517 Population size structure and breeding biology of Puntius sophore in the old Brahmaputra river, Bangladesh <p>The pool barb (Puntius sophore) is an indigenous freshwater species of Bangladesh. The population size structure, sex ratio, condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and fecundity of P. sophore were estimated as biological parameters in the present study. A total of 480 specimens were collected in 12 months from the River Brahmaputra between July 2019 and June 2020. Length-frequency data revealed that the length of the maximum number (155) of individuals in catch sample was in 9-11cm intervals. The average male: female ratio was 1.0:1.4 indicating female dominance in the population throughout the year though there was no significant difference between the sex ratio (χ<sup>2</sup>=0.34, P&gt;0.05). Mean condition factor (K) was different in different months. Both sexes experienced the highest condition factor (K) in June, and the lowest in February and January, respectively. The GSI in both sexes fluctuated significantly in different months and showed one peak in June. Total fecundity varied from 960 to 5680 (3116±1411). The arithmetic equations of fecundity against TL, BW, and OW were F=3409.33+615.35 TL, F=462.47+40.20 BW, and F=2932.9+2839.32 OW respectively. The scatter diagram between fecundity with TL, BW, and OW demonstrated a linear relation and positive association between the three variables. The findings of this investigation offer baseline information on a few biological characteristics of P. sophore, information that will help forecast the reactions of P. sophore populations in the Old Brahmaputra River.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2023) 27 (2): 59-70</p> Supapa Debi Mohammad Abdus Salam Mohammad Lutfar Rahman Md Shakhawate Hossain Sabuj Kanti Mazumder Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Abiar Rahman; Supapa Debi, Mohammad Abdus Salam, Mohammad Lutfar Rahman, Md Shakhawate Hossain, Sabuj Kanti Mazumder 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 27 2 59 70 10.3329/aba.v27i2.72527 Market choice behavior of fish farmers in the haor regions of Bangladesh <p>The fish farming sector in haor regions of Bangladesh is integral to both local livelihoods and the national economy. This study examined the factors that influence fish farmers’ choice of market in this region, offering empirical insights into their decision-making processes. Using a random sampling technique, data were collected from 450 fish farmers across three upazilas in Netrokona, Kishoreganj, and Sunamganj districts. The multinomial logit model was employed to identify these influencing factors. The analysis revealed that factors such as age, education, access to extension services, and labor availability have negative effects on the selection of secondary markets. Total market loss also negatively impacts the choice of both secondary and tertiary markets. Furthermore, transportation facilities and distance to the market decrease the probability of selecting tertiary markets. In contrast, access to credit facilities positively influences the choice of secondary markets and negatively influences the choice of tertiary markets. Infrastructure facilities have a positive impact <br />on the choice of secondary and tertiary markets but reduce the likelihood of selecting primary markets. This study underscores the importance of effective support systems, investments in education and infrastructure, risk management enhancements, and the promotion of sustainable practices in the local fish farming industry. Policymakers and stakeholders should consider these findings when developing strategies for the sustainable growth of the haor regions’ fish farming sector.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2023) 27 (2): 71-89</p> Debasish Chandra Acharjee Shanjida Amin Chowdhury Kamal Gosh Shakila Suhi Md Ruhul Amin G M Monirul Alam Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Abiar Rahman; Debasish Chandra Acharjee, Shanjida Amin Chowdhury, Kamal Gosh, Shakila Suhi, Md Ruhul Amin, G M Monirul Alam 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 27 2 71 89 10.3329/aba.v27i2.71766 Exogenous application of calcium ameliorates salinity stress of mungbean <p>An experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of exogenous Ca in alleviating salinity stress of mungbean. Two mungbean genotypes, BD 6895 and BD 6905, were used with four different Ca levels (5, 10, 15 and 20 mM) under 10 dSm<sup>-1 </sup>salinity conditions in a hydroponic culture. The application of exogenous Ca positively influenced on overall plant growth and development. Although both genotypes exhibited similar plant heights, they gave the peak (56.65 and 48.6 cm for BD 6895 and BD 6905, respectively) at 10 mM Ca. Higher levels of exogenous Ca were associated with increased chlorophyll content. Maximum Chlorophyll (1.6 mg g<sup>-1</sup>) was observed at 15 mM Ca treatment. Furthermore, exogenous Ca application reduced Malondialdehyde levels (at 15 mM Ca: 1.14 and 1.69 μmole/g for BD 6895 and BD 6905, respectively). Both the genotypes exhibited a proline content pattern, demonstrating proline content upsurge with increased Ca application. Microscopic analysis revealed larger vascular areas with exogenous Ca (BD 6895: 402 µm, BD 6905: 398.3 µm) compared to smaller areas under salinity stress (BD 6895: 258.7 µm, BD 6905: 248.4 µm). Salinity stress induced changes in upper epidermis thickness, leaf tissue compactness, chloroplast breakdown and chlorosis in mungbean plants. However, exogenous Ca application counteracted these detrimental effects, enabling mungbean plants to thrive in saline conditions. In conclusion, the study highlights the positive influence of exogenous Ca (10-15 mM) in promoting mungbean growth and managing salt stress.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. (2023) 27 (2): 91-104</p> Haider Iqbal Khan Totan Kumar Ghosh Md Abdul Baset Mia Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Abiar Rahman; Haider Iqbal Khan, Totan Kumar Ghosh, Md Abdul Baset Mia 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 27 2 91 104 10.3329/aba.v27i2.72530 Assessment of heavy metals and ecological risk of pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farms in Bangladesh <p>An investigation was conducted to evaluate the contamination levels of heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu) in surface water and sediment of pangas <strong>(</strong>Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) aquaculture farms in four regions (Mymensingh, Cumilla, Bogura, and Jashore) of Bangladesh. The ecological risk index (ERI) was determined to assess the water quality index. The water contained As concentrations of 3.60–11.14 µg/L; Pb of 1.73–3.83 µg/L; Cd of 1.26–23.12 µg/L; and Cu of 6.08–45.22 µg/L; whereas the sediments contained As concentrations of 2.84–4.57 mg/Kg; Pb of 8.32–16.07 mg/Kg; and Cd of 0.22–12 mg/Kg. Most locations had moderate to low levels of pollution, and the levels of contamination decreased from Cd to Pb to As to Cr. The declining sequence of potential ecological risk factors of toxic metals in sediment was Cd &gt; Pb &gt; As &gt; Cr. Cd's potential ecological risk factor ranged from 2.84 to 21.58, making it one of the elements with the highest potential for ecological danger compared with other metals in this study. The Igeo values for the metals under study showed the following hierarchy Cr &gt; As &gt; Pb &gt; Cd. As had a geo-accumulation index of -1.87 to 0.82, Pb, Cd -0.48 to -1.13, and Cr registered -1.28 to -2.45. Ponds in four different regions were found to be safe and suitable for fish culture, however, it was recommended that continuous monitoring of heavy metal concentrations in the aquaculture sector is necessary to mitigate the threat of contamination.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric.27(2):105-117</p> Rifat Azad Keya Jahid Hasan Ajmala Akter Anamika Roy Mohammad Abdur Razzak Dinesh Chandra Shaha Zinia Rahman Md Emranul Ahsan Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Abiar Rahman; Rifat Azad Keya, Jahid Hasan, Ajmala Akter, Anamika Roy, Mohammad Abdur Razzak, Dinesh Chandra Shaha, Zinia Rahman, Md Emranul Ahsan 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 27 2 105 117 10.3329/aba.v27i2.72533 Performance of sunflower at different pruning regimes in Acacia albida based agroforestry system <p>A study was conducted in albida (Acacia albida) based agroforestry research field of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) from November/2020-March/2021 to evaluate the performance of sunflower at different light intensity created by pruning off the albida canopy at different levels. The experiment was set up in a single-factor Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Five different treatments of the experiment were as follows; T<sub>1</sub>: albida tree (no pruning) T<sub>2</sub>: albida tree (25% pruning), T<sub>3</sub>: albida (50% pruning, T<sub>4</sub>: albida (75% pruning) and T<sub>5</sub>: sunflower sole cropping in open field. The results revealed that T<sub>1</sub> treatment produced the tallest plant (100.72cm) followed by T<sub>2 </sub>(97.48cm) while the treatment T<sub>5 </sub>produced the shortest (72.95cm) plant. The fresh weight (81.67g) and dried weight (13.95g) of sunflower leaves were found maximum in T<sub>4</sub> and the minimum fresh weight (53.48g) and dry weight (8.34g) were recorded in T<sub>1</sub> treatment. The highest CGR (1.169mg/cm<sup>2</sup>/day) and RGR 66.58 (mg/g/day) values were found in T<sub>5 </sub>and was not significant with T<sub>4</sub>. The yield parameters of sunflower such as head diameter (15cm) and 1000 seeds weight (43.34g) were found maximum in T<sub>5</sub> (open field) which was statistically similar to that of T<sub>4 </sub>treatment. The T<sub>5</sub> yielded the highest (1.13t/ha) sunflower seeds followed by T<sub>4</sub> (1.09t/ha). The study indicated that sunflower can be grown successfully under the albida tree canopy with 75% trimming.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. 27(2): 119-128</p> Shima Khatun Noor Shaila Sarmin Md Main Uddin Miah Md Azizul Hoque Shohana Parvin Satyen Mondal Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Abiar Rahman; Shima Khatun, Noor Shaila Sarmin, Md Main Uddin Miah, Md Azizul Hoque, Shohana Parvin, Satyen Mondal 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 27 2 119 128 10.3329/aba.v27i2.72534 Current scenario on reproductive management and performances of dairy cows in Manikganj district <p>The aim of the study was to evaluate reproductive management and performance of dairy cows in Manikganj district. A total of 400 cows with varying genetics, including native (N), Sahiwal or Red Sindhi cross with native cows (S or RS×N), and Holstein-Friesian cross (HFC), were randomly selected from 60 farms, between February to November 2022. Various practices linked to reproductive management and parameters associated with reproductive performance, such as calving to first service interval (CFSI), calving to conception interval (CCI), number of services per conception (NSC), and calving interval (CI), along with data on health problems related issues, were collected using a predetermined questionnaire by interviewing farmers and personal observations. Results reveal that visual observation method (100%) was used for estrus detection and 91.67% farmers observed their cows several times in a day. The majority of farmers (78.3%) followed artificial insemination (AI) to conceive their cows. Only 43.3% farmers checked cow’s pregnancy routinely at 90-120 days after breeding by rectal palpation. Additionally, 26.7% farmers maintained dry period of their milch cows, whereas, 73.3% were not interested. Most of the farmers (75.0%) provided vitamin-mineral supplements during gestation period. However, only 30.0% farmers maintained hygienic condition during puerperium period. The average reproductive performances were CFSI (111.9 ± 18.0, 110.8 ± 21.9 and 106.4 ± 22.1 days), CCI (124.8 ± 20.0, 125.9 ± 21.8 and 121.7 ± 21.3 days), NSC (1.6 ± 0.5, 1.7 ± 0.6 and 1.8 ± 0.6) and CI (409.4 ± 21.4, 412.4 ± 21.8 and 408.3 ± 21.0 days) in N, S or RS×N and HFC cows, respectively (p&gt;0.05). The overall prevalence of reproductive problems was 29.5 % and this rate was 46.0, 33.3 and 27.1% in N, S or RS×N and HFC cows, respectively. Therefore, reproductive management practices were good in majority of farms, but need to improve and performance of cows managed, is acceptable and mostly fall within the reproductive goals for sustainable production and farm income.</p> <p><strong> </strong>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. 27(2): 129-144</p> Israt Zarin Anup Kumar Talukder M Nazmul Hoque Md Mizanur Rahman Md Golam Haider Abu Nasar Md Aminoor Rahman Ziban Chandra Das Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Abiar Rahman; Israt Zarin, Anup Kumar Talukder, M Nazmul Hoque, Md Mizanur Rahman, Md Golam Haider, Abu Nasar Md Aminoor Rahman, Ziban Chandra Das 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 27 2 129 144 10.3329/aba.v27i2.72541 Women access to household and farm resources in Sunamganj haor area of Bangladesh <p>In this present investigation the access of women to their household and farm resources were exmined in Sunamganj haor areas of Bangladesh. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from November 2016 to March 2017 through face-to-face contact with 200 sampled respondents who were selected following simple random sampling method. Access of woman to household and farm resources was measured based on their extent of access to those two selected resources -, each resource comprising 22 items. The findings of the study revealed that 49% of the respondents had low access and 51% had medium access to household resources. Twenty-nine percent of the women had low access whereas 71% of the women having medium access to farm resources. Thirty-nine percent of the haor women had low access and 61% having medium access to overall resources. None of the haor women was found with higher access to mutual household and farm resources. The finding indicated that the majority of the women were deprived of having power and authority to use and control over the household resources and they were also lagged behind in respect to use and control over farm resources. In addition, out of fourteen attributes, five attributes, namely, education, household farm size, role in family decision-making, availability of household resources, and availability of farm resources had significant influence on the access to resources of women in the haor area. Finally, it is concluded that the findings of the study can be utilized by the policymakers and planners of the country to formulate future plan of haor women to improve their livelihood and empowerment.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. 27(2):145-159</p> Farhana Yeasmin Md Abdul Momen Miah M Hummadur Rahman Md Showkot Osman Shamim Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Abiar Rahman; Farhana Yeasmin, Md Abdul Momen Miah, M Hummadur Rahman, Md Showkot Osman Shamim 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 27 2 145 159 10.3329/aba.v27i2.72542 Assessment of the temperature and humidity index (THI) to facilitate the establishment of a ruminant rearing system in Bangladesh <p>The objective of this study was to assess the temperature-humidity index (THI) values in the selected regions of Bangladesh for the suitability of ruminant rearing. Data on monthly temperatures and relative humidity were collected from the Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) for a 27-year time period (1995–2022). The study region’s data indicated that the hottest area was west central region and hottest month was June. In comparison, the coolest area was northwest region and coolest month was January. The northwest region had no heat stress from November to February, mild heat stress from March to May and October, as well as moderate heat stress from June to September. In the northeast region, mild heat stress occurred from March to May, October, and November, and moderate heat stress from June to September. December to February were comfortable, March, October, and November were mild heat stress, and April through September were moderate heat stress in the west central region. In the east central region, mild heat stress occurred in March to April, October, and November, and severe heat stress in May to September. In contrast to the west central region, which showed moderate heat stress during the rainy season, most other seasons showed mild heat stress. Thus, heat stress periods might vary depending on regional meteorological scenarios. Animals faced heat stress (THI &gt; 72) or a warning signal due to a progressive increase in temperature and humidity indices over months and years of investigation. When THI levels are high, especially in July and August, livestock farmers must emphasize various herd management techniques to limit the risk of milk production and quality concerns, disease prevalence, and reproductive performance. The findings of the present investigation suggest heat stress mitigation measures for Bangladeshi ruminant farmers.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. 27 (2): 161-174</p> Md Sodrul Islam Apurbo Kumar Mondal Md Rabiul Aawal Md Shahidul Islam S H M Faruk Siddiki Md Ashraful Islam Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Abiar Rahman; Md Sodrul Islam, Apurbo Kumar Mondal, Md Rabiul Aawal, Md Shahidul Islam, Md Shahidul Islam, S H M Faruk Siddiki 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 27 2 161 174 10.3329/aba.v27i2.72544 Water quality and the presence of metals in crustaceans (Sartoriana spinigera) and mollusks (Pila globosa) close to an urban waste landfill in Kodda at Gazipur <p>Degradation of water and sediment quality along with other aquatic ecosystem components, due to urban waste is a significant concern that demands attention. Despite of the multifaceted use of the Konabari area within the Gazipur City Corporation of Bangladesh, limited studies have assessed the health of the floodplain ecosystem adjacent to urban waste landfills in Kodda. This research focuses on evaluating water quality parameters and the presence of metals and metalloids in water, sediment, and biota (invertebrates) in the lowland floodplain near the Kodda municipal landfill in Gazipur district. In December 2022, thirteen composite samples, including water, sediment, crustaceans (Sartoriana spinigera), and mollusks (Pila globosa), were collected from the designated sampling site. Surface and sub-surface (0–15 cm depth) water were collected using a water sampler for water quality analysis, and the presence of heavy metal and metalloid content of the water, sediment, crabs, and mollusks were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The results indicated dissolved oxygen concentrations ranging from 0.30 to 5.81 mg/l (mean 3.1±2.37 mg/l). Certain locations directly affected by waste discharge exhibited alarmingly low dissolved oxygen levels (~0.71 mg/l), coupled with elevated temperatures and phosphate (PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3−</sup>) content (2–7.4 mg/l). The scarcity of heavy metal concentrations (&lt;0.0677 mg/l) in water may be attributed to the constant flow of water preventing metal accumulation in the flowing water. However, sediment analysis revealed significantly higher concentrations (mean±Sd) of Fe (15240±1211 mg/kg), Mn (1122±180 mg/kg), Cu (44±5.5 mg/kg), Cr (28±3.2 mg/kg), Ni (39±2.4 mg/kg), As (3.7±0.89 mg/kg), and Zn (72±3.95 mg/kg) compared to other studies in various locations. Crustacean (Crab) samples showed concentrations of Cr, As, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu exceeding recommended permissible limits. Pila globosa emerged as an effective ecological bioindicator of aquatic pollution, with concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pd exceeding recommended limits. Despite eco-environmental indices suggesting low to moderate contamination, the heavy metals and metalloids study indicated degradation of ecosystem health triggered by urban waste discharge. Consequently, the study recommends proper waste treatment in landfills and their transformation from open dumps to scientifically managed controlled waste landfills.</p> <p>Ann. Bangaldesh Agric. 27(2):175-189</p> Md Nurunnabi Mondal D M Rokibul Hoque Siddiqui Israth Jarin Promi Md Emranul Ahsan Tasrina Rabia Choudhury Shaifa Abrarin Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Abiar Rahman; Md Nurunnabi Mondal, D M Rokibul Hoque Siddiqui, Israth Jarin Promi, Md Emranul Ahsan, Tasrina Rabia Choudhury, Shaifa Abrarin 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 27 2 175 189 10.3329/aba.v27i2.72545 Performance of BSMRAU-developed vegetables under fruit tree-based agroforestry systems <p>Many field crop lands are being transformed to fruit orchards in different locations of Bangladesh. There is an ample scope to cultivate intercrops in the orchards following scientific manner and proper technology including suitable varieties. In this study, mango and orange orchards were transformed to agroforestry system in Kotchandpur upazila under Jhenaidah district to investigate the performances of selected vegetable varieties (bottle gourd, stem amaranth, papaya, cauliflower, and country bean) developed by the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU). Randomized complete block design was used to compare agroforestry (mango and orange orchards) and non-agroforestry (open field) treatments for identifying suitable tree-vegetable combinations. The results indicated that yields of the tested vegetables were higher in the non-agroforestry system (crop field without trees) compared to the agroforestry system. Yields of bottle gourd stem amaranth, cauliflower, and country bean in agroforestry systems decreased by 21, 7, 18, and 19%, respectively, compared to non-agroforestry system. On the contrary, yield reductions were 7.9, 15.7, 3.9 and 4.6% in mango-based agroforestry than orange-based agroforestry for bottle gourd, stem amaranth, cauliflower, and country bean, respectively. The findings suggested that although all the tested vegetables can be grown in agroforestry, but creeping type vegetables are less suitable. Despite the observed reduction in yields, the fruit tree-based agroforestry system demonstrated its potential as a viable alternative, offering to reduce crop failure risk to the farmers and optimizing land utilization. The order of the suitability of the tested vegetables are stem amaranth &gt; cauliflower &gt; country bean &gt; bottle gourd in agroforestry systems.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. 27(2):191-199</p> Md Abiar Rahman Satya Ranjan Saha Ashim Kumar Das Chandon Mondol Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Abiar Rahman; Md Abiar Rahman, Satya Ranjan Saha, Ashim Kumar Das 2024-05-19 2024-05-19 27 2 191 199 10.3329/aba.v27i2.72546 Growth and trend analysis of onion production in Bangladesh <p>Onion is a major spice crop that is grown and consumed extensively in Bangladesh and across the world. The present study was carried out with the goal of analyzing the growth and trend of area, production and yield of onion in Bangladesh. Annual area, production, and yield data of onion in Bangladesh were collected from FAOSTAT for 50 years from 1970 to 2019. The semi-log model and compound growth model were used to investigate the growth of onion whereas exponential trend model was employed to estimate the trend of area, production, and yield of onion in Bangladesh. According to the growth rate and trend line estimates, the area under the onion crop has been augmented over time. Specifically, the semi-log model findings show that the onion area, production and yield grew by on an average 3.87%, 5.46% and 1.58% per year, respectively. The compound annual growth rate estimate indicated significant growth of onion area, production and yield from 2015 to 2019. The exponential trend line for onion area, production and yield showed slow growth rate from 1970 to 1990 but relatively faster growth later on. These evaluations may aid the government in balancing demand and supply, as well as in regulating the price of onion in local markets Bangladesh.</p> <p>Ann. Bangladesh Agric. 27(2):201-210</p> Sharmin Akter Kazi Tamim Rahman Asif Reza Anik Md Ruhul Amin Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Abiar Rahman; Sharmin Akter, Kazi Tamim Rahman, Asif Reza Anik, Md Ruhul Amin 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 27 2 201 210 10.3329/aba.v27i2.72547