Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research <p><a href="">Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research</a> is an open access, peer-reviewed, international journal. This journal publishes high-quality original scientific papers and short communications. 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These materials will then be destroyed.</p> Study of prevalence of theileriosis in cattle and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of different commercially available drugs <p>The present study was carried out to detect the prevalence of theileriosis in cattle of Sadar, Singair and Ghior upazila in Manikganj district of Bangladesh and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Imidocarb dipropionate (Babenil®), Oxytetracycline (Renamycine®) and Gentamicin (Acigent®). The study was conducted for six months and during this study period a total of 150 cattle were examined, 10 were found to be infected with Theileria spp. On Geimsa stained blood smear examination, it was observed that the overall prevalence of theileriosis in cattle was recorded as 6.67%. Animals were screened on the basis of clinical signs like fever, anorexia, with or without superficial lymph node enlargement and blood smear examination for presence of Theileria spp. The prevalence of theileriosis in female was non significantly higher (7.50 %) than male (5.71%). In case of age group, the significantly highest prevalence (13.3%) was in adult cattle above 3 years age, followed by 4.00 % in the age group of 2 to less than 3 years old and 0.00 % in 6 months to 2 years which was not significant(p&gt;0.05). The prevalence of theileriosis in respect of breed was non significantly (p&gt;0.05) maximum in cross breed cattle (7.05 %) than in indigenous cattle (6.15%). After identification of causal agent, therapeutic effect of imidocarb dipropionate, oxytetracycline and gentamicin were tested and where highest recovery was found by administration of imidocarb dipropionate (70 %) can be successfully used in the treatment of theileriosis.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (1), 1-8</p> Md Anowarul Haque Md Mehedi Hasan Md Ershad Hossain Md Rashedul Islam Tanjina Afrin Copyright (c) 2022 Md Anowarul Haque, Md Mehedi Hasan, Md Ershad Hossain, Md Rashedul Islam and Tanjina Afrin 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 8 1 1 8 10.3329/ajmbr.v8i1.58929 Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination in wild catfish and rivers at northern part of Bangladesh <p>A variety of fishes consumed regularly are prone to pathogenic spoilage especially by different microbes. It is important to find out microbiological quality of fish that we consume regularly to protect the public health. Current research was conducted to assess the incidence of <em>Salmonella </em>and <em>Escherichia coli </em>(<em>E. coli</em>) contamination in three selected catfish species namely, Ayer (<em>Sperata seenghala</em>), Pabda (Ompok <em>pabda</em>) and Magur (<em>Clarias batrachus</em>) <em>of </em>five rivers (Dhepa, Atrai, Punorvoba, Kakra, and Ghorveshori) of Dinajpur district. The study showed that <em>Salmonella </em>and <em>E. coli </em>positive isolates were 33.33% and 55.55% in Punorvoba river, 31.03% and 50.00% in Atrai river, 30.19% and 56.60% in Dhepa river, 29.63% and 59.26% in Ghorveshori river and 27.08% and 56.25% in Kakra river, respectively. Highest percentage of <em>Salmonella </em>and <em>E. coli </em>were found in <em>Ompok pabda </em>(39.40%) and in <em>Clarias batrachus (</em>63.84%), respectively. Lowest percentage of <em>Salmonella and E. coli </em>were found in <em>Sperata seenghala (</em>26.50% and 41.07%), respectively. The percentage of <em>E. coli </em>was greater than <em>Salmonella for </em>each of the experimental samples that are very alarming for consumption of wild catfish. At the same time, the microbial quality of water of Dhepa, Atrai, Punorvoba, Kakra, and Ghorveshori rivers are not satisfactory regarding fish consumption and public health.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (1), 9-15</p> Md Faridullah Banya Rani Md Reazul Islam Md Masud Rana Copyright (c) 2022 Md Faridullah, Banya Rani, Md Reazul Islam and Md Masud Rana 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 8 1 9 15 10.3329/ajmbr.v8i1.58930 Clinical and radiological characteristics of adult hospitalized coronavirus disease-2019 patients of Dhaka, Bangladesh <p>The severity of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) varies among individuals and some influential factors leads to critical infections and death. This study aimed to assess various clinical data of hospitalized patients and identify the determinants of critical COVID-19 infection. This was a cross-sectional study among hospitalized COVID-19 patients confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data was collected from a single Centre between January to April 2021 by experienced physicians of Ad-din Medical College Hospital. All of the laboratory tests were performed by technical experts and the data was analyzed by Statistical package for the social sciences software. Among the study participants 25% were Intensive care unit (ICU) patients and the mean age of them were higher (59 years) than non-ICU (55 years) patients. Our analysis has identified diabetes mellitus (AOR=2.5, 95%CI: 1.1-5.4) and ischemic heart disease (AOR=3.1, 95%CI: 1.1-8.9) as significant predictor of critical outcome (ICU admission). Anemia (AOR=3.3, 95%CI: 1.5-7.4), lymphopenia (AOR=2.9, 95%CI: 1.2-7.1), and thrombocytopenia (AOR=4.2, 95%CI: 2.7-12.9) was also associated critical outcome. Biomarkers of kidney injury (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen), liver damage (alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, fibrinogen) and electrolyte imbalance (sodium and potassium level) were also significantly associated with critical infection. A higher d-dimer level (≥2.5) was the most important predictor (AOR=11.5, 95%CI: 5.4-24.6) of critical COVID 19 infections. The study has revealed socio-demographic, comorbidity, and radiological risk factors of critical COVID-19 infections. The identified risk factors would be considered for decision making during the treatment process.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (1), 16-23</p> AHM Khairul Imam Suman Khadija Begum Kaniz Rahman Saiful Bahar Khan Mohammad Morshad Alam Copyright (c) 2022 AHM Khairul Imam Suman, Khadija Begum, Kaniz Rahman, Saiful Bahar Khan and Mohammad Morshad Alam 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 8 1 16 23 10.3329/ajmbr.v8i1.58931 Study on occurrence of myiasis in different species of animals at Babuganj Upazilla of Barishal district in Bangladesh <p>Myiasis is a common insect borne surgical problem of animals in Bangladesh. The present study was conducted to find out the occurrence in relation to various epidemiological factors in various species of animals at Upazilla Veterinary Hospital, Babugonj, Barishal, during the period of study from December 2020 to April 2021. Myiatic cases were identified by clinical examination with presence of maggot larvae in the affected regions. Questionnaire was used to collect data on species, sex, season, affected body region, age of animals. A total of 110 cases were recorded myiasis positive among 500 examined animals during the period of study. The overall occurrence of myiasis in different species of animals was 22%. Female animal of cattle, sheep, goat and buffalo were highly affected (63.63%) than male (36.36%). Goats were highly infected with myiasis followed by cattle, sheep and buffalo (45.45%, 22.72%, 18.18% and 13.63%, respectively). Myiasis frequently occurred in March and April (54.54%).The myiasis infestation rate was higher in local (68.18%) breed of cattle (local: 13; cross: 12), goat (local: 27; cross: 23), sheep (local: 20), buffalo (local: 15) than the cross (31.82%)breed. The &lt;6 months (45.45%) aged animals were mostly affected followed by 6 months to 2 years (31.82%), and &gt;2 years (22.73%) groups. The highly affected body region was navel (20%) followed by leg (18.18%), vulva lips (16.36%), hoof (15.45%), skin (12.73%), ear (9.09%) and neck (8.18%), respectively. This study will provide valuable information for future research on myiasis infestation in animals and impart the idea of maggot wound management.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (1), 24-29</p> Lamyea Farzana Nini Bidyut Matubber Md Atikuzzaman Arif Milton Talukder Copyright (c) 2022 Lamyea Farzana Nini, Bidyut Matubber, Md Atikuzzaman Arif and Milton Talukder 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 8 1 24 29 10.3329/ajmbr.v8i1.58932 Molecular detection of foot and mouth disease virus serotype A in goats (Capra hircus) <p>Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, transboundary, and re-emerging viral disease that mostly affects cloven-hoofed animals specially cattle, goats, swine, sheep, etc. resulting in significant economic losses. Despite regular vaccination, outbreaks of the disease have become a yearly occurrence across the country. RT-PCR was used to determine the prevalence and molecular detection of serotype A of FMDV in clinically affected goats in Goat research farm, BLRI, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh during August 2018. A total of 9 samples were taken from 1 to 2 years old Black Bengal goats suspected to have FMD. FMDV was detected in 55.56% (5/9) of the suspected samples using RT-PCR. The serotype of positive samples was also determined using gsRT-PCR. However, FMDV serotype A was prevalent in 100% (5) positive samples. Additionally, considering the age, the prevalence of confirmed FMD outbreak was 40% (2), 40% (2), and 20% (1) at the age of 1, 1.5 and 2 years, respectively. It was found that young goats are more susceptible to FMDV than adults. However, it can be concluded that suspected goats were infected with FMDV serotype A and trivalent FMD vaccine is suggested for prevention and control of FMD outbreak.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (1), 30-36</p> Md Habibur Rahman Sonia Akther Md Zakir Hassan Md Zulfekar Ali Md Giasuddin Copyright (c) 2022 Md Habibur Rahman, Sonia Akther, Md Zakir Hassan, Md Zulfekar Ali and Md Giasuddin 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 8 1 30 36 10.3329/ajmbr.v8i1.58933 Development of flock immunity against Newcastle disease in native chicken in a locality <p>Preventive measures to combat with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can be achieved by vaccination programs that are practiced in many countries of the world. Even after vaccination outbreaks of NDV occurred in the flock indicate that vaccination against NDV cannot provide effective immunity that may cause disease in partially vaccinated flock. Hence, the objectives of this study was to development of flock immunity in chicken against Newcastle disease in a local community. In this study a vaccination programme for the native flock in a locality (Dhamrai, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh) was conducted and effectiveness of the Ranikhet disease vaccine (RDV) was identified with detection of antibody titers that may protect the native flocks against the disease but mortality or the infection was present. The study showed that after routine vaccination with BCRDV (Baby Chicks Ranikhet Disease Vaccine) and RDV (Ranikhet Disease Vaccine) vaccine the native chicken showed high antibody titre in native chicken. Overall herd immunity of native chickens can be achieved if the maximum (&gt;80%) chicken obtains high antibody titers (log2 haemagglutination inhibition titer ≥3) after vaccinations. So, it can be concluded that successful vaccinations programme is the key point to control NDV with higher herd health immunity.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (1), 37-41</p> Sonia Akther Md Zakir Hassan Copyright (c) 2022 Sonia Akther and Md Zakir Hassan 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 8 1 37 41 10.3329/ajmbr.v8i1.58934 Pregnancy diagnosis in goats (Capra hircus) using barium chloride and progesterone-based kit in Bangladesh <p>The study was conducted to develop a technique for early diagnosis of pregnancy in goats from July 2016 to June 2017. About 100 goats of different age groups were randomly selected for the trial and goats were categorized under four groups according to their gestation lengths (0.5 to 1 month, &gt;1 to 1.5 months, &gt;1.5 to 2 months and &gt;2 to 2.5 months). Blood from jugular vein and morning urine samples were collected from four groups and brought to the laboratory, and serum was separated from the clotted blood. Then 1%, 1.5% and 2% barium chloride solution were prepared and test was done by using 1 ml barium chloride of each concentration mixing with 1 ml of urine sample, and allowed for 5 and 10 minutes for interpretation. Presence of precipitation was interpreted as negative for pregnancy and absence of precipitation was interpreted as positive for pregnancy. For each blood sample, 3-5 drops of serum was added in each sample insertion hole of the Bovipreg kit and 5 minutes was allowed to observe the presence of one or two red line in the kit. One red line was interpreted as negative pregnancy and two red lines were interpreted as positive pregnancy. In our study 1% barium chloride, showed 93.5% accuracy, whereas 1.5% barium chloride provided 92% accuracy for the goats having 0.5 to 1 month of gestation. In case of 2% barium chloride, the highest accuracy was 91.5% for the goats having &gt;1 to 1.5 month of gestation. Conversely, the accuracy for progesterone-based early pregnancy diagnostic kit was 96.5%. Therefore, 1% barium chloride can be utilized for the diagnosis of pregnancy in goats.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (1), 42-46</p> Sonia Akther Md Nuruzzaman Munsi Md Habibur Rahman Md Zakir Hassan Copyright (c) 2022 Sonia Akther, Md Nuruzzaman Munsi, Md Habibur Rahman and Md Zakir Hassan 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 8 1 42 46 10.3329/ajmbr.v8i1.58935 Screening of soybean genotypes for the source of soybean mosaic resistance <p>Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is the major constraints for soybean cultivation in many parts of the country. Experiments were carried out to study the seed transmission of SMV and to identify the resistant sources through screening of 30 promising soybean genotypes obtained from different sources under natural infections conditions in between 2000 and 2001. Indirect-ELISA was performed against TRSV, TMV, CPMV, CMV, BBSV, BBTMV and SMV in leaf materials, both from healthy and diseased plant materials and the results showed that the seeds and the plants in the field were free from those 6 viruses. The highest seed transmission was found in Gaurab (15.07%) followed by G-2120 and the lowest (1.5%) seed transmission was found in TG-893 followed by BS-32, CM and AGS-129. Seed mottling was found related to seed transmission. No disease incidence was found in AGS-129 but there were seed mottling (1.25%). On the other hand, genotype AGS- 160 was free from mottled seeds but produced infected seedlings. Mosaic symptom became apparent 15 days after sowing (DAS), highest at 60 DAS and disappear after 90 DAS. Seeds from seed lot containing up to 20% mottled symptom could not hamper production. Screening of 30 soybean genotypes based on the natural infections revealed that AGS-129 was identified as resistant and grading 1, 10 were identified as moderately resistant (MR) considered as grading 3 and the remaining genotypes were susceptible (S) and moderately susceptible (MS) considered as grading 7 and 5, respectively. The 10 genotypes <em>viz</em>. CM, BS-32, ACAGS-154, G-2261, AGS-129, Durga, Williams, AGS-160, EC-1178 and PR-164 could be used for further study to locate resistant genes against soybean mosaic virus and varietal improvement in breeding purpose.</p> <p>Asian J. Med. Biol. Res. 2022, 8 (1), 47-62</p> Uttam Kumar Mozumdar Md Mostafa Masud Mamuna Mahjabin Mita Samrin Bashar Md Mahboob Hossain M Ashrafuzzaman Md Rashidul Islam Copyright (c) 2022 Uttam Kumar Mozumdar, Md Mostafa Masud, Mamuna Mahjabin Mita, Samrin Bashar, Md Mahboob Hossain, M Ashrafuzzaman and Md Rashidul Islam 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 8 1 47 62 10.3329/ajmbr.v8i1.58936