Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy https://banglajol.info/index.php/BJA <p>The official organ of the Anatomical Society of Bangladesh. Full text articles available.</p> The Anatomical Society of Bangladesh en-US Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy 1817-065X Histological Study of Luminal Diameter of the Extra Hepatic Biliary Ducts https://banglajol.info/index.php/BJA/article/view/71819 <p><strong>Context: </strong>The extra hepatic biliary ducts include the right and left hepatic ducts, common hepatic duct and common bile duct. The luminal diameter of the biliary ducts gradually increase with age but it may dilate significantly in obstructive disease in the biliary passage. A variety of factors have been reported to have an effect on the size of the biliary ducts, such as dislodged calculi from the gallbladder, history of prior cholecystectomy, congenital abnormalities or anatomical variations. Ultimately, the luminal size should be considered as a single part of the entire assesment of the biliary tree. However, such an assesment implies knowledge of the normal size of the biliary passage. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A cross sectional descriptive type of study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Sir Salimullah Medical College on sixty two (62) human cadaveric extra hepatic biliary apparatus. The samples were collected from unclaimed dead bodies that were under examination in the department of Forensic Medicine of Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka and Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka. The present study was conducted to determine the normal luminal diameter of extra hepatic biliary ducts histologically and their age related changes. <strong>Results: </strong>The differences in mean (±SD) luminal diameter of the cystic duct, common hepatic duct and common bile duct were found statistically significant (P&lt;0.001) between different age groups. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>In the present study the luminal diameter of the extra hepatic biliary duct was found to increase with advancing age.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy January 2016, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 1-4</p> Laila Farzana Khan Humaira Naushaba Copyright (c) 2016 Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy 2016-01-01 2016-01-01 14 1 1 4 10.3329/bja.v14i1.71819 Number of Brunner’s Glands in Different Parts of the Duodenum in Bengalis of Bangladeshi Population https://banglajol.info/index.php/BJA/article/view/71818 <p><strong>Context: </strong>The existence of Brunner’s glands in the duodenal submucosa is uncontestable, but their exact numerical distribution along the full extent of the duodenal wall has not been reported in Bangladeshi Bengalis. To determine the numerical distribution of the Brunner’s glands along different parts of the duodenum in Bangladeshi Bengalis, a cross-sectional analytical type of study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, from July 2010 to June 2011. <strong>Materials &amp; Methods: </strong>The study material consist of histological slides of 17 post mortem cadaveric duodenum of 20 to 59 years of age. The study samples were divided into four age groups: Group A (20-29 years), Group B (30-39 years), Group C (40-49 years) and Group D (50-59 years). Histological study was carried out on 5 study samples from each of Group A, B and C and 2 study samples from group D. One slide was prepared from each part of the duodenum: first, second, third and fourth. These were stained with hematoxylin-eosin stain. Three microscopic fields, each representative of one-third of a slide were examined from each slide. The number of Brunner’s Glands per field was counted; the mean number for each age group in each duodenal part was calculated. <strong>Result: </strong>The mean (± SD) number of the Brunner’s glands in first part of the duodenum per square millimeter was 61.10 (± 12.68), 53.00 (± 6.04), 58.13 (± 8.90) and 40.25 (± 7.42) for Groups A, B, C and D respectively. In the second part, it was 37.70 (± 9.22), 33.30 (± 6.06), 35.13 (± 2.10), 27.50 (± 4.24) respectively. In the third part, the number of the Brunner’s gland per square millimeter was 14.10 (± 14.54), 9.70 (± 9.14), 6.38 (± 5.12) and 5.25 (± 7.42) respectively and in the fourth part, it was 0.50 (± 1.12), for Group A. In the other age groups, there were no Brunner’s gland in this part of the duodenum. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The number of Brunner’s gland was found maximum in the first part of the duodenum for all age groups and decreased in the second and third part of the duodenum and was absent in the fourth part of the duodenum. However, further studies to standardise this finding are recommended.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy January 2016, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 5-8</p> Sharmina Sayeed Shamim Ara Copyright (c) 2016 Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy 2016-01-01 2016-01-01 14 1 5 8 10.3329/bja.v14i1.71818 Variations in the Superior Articular Facets of the Atlas Vertebra https://banglajol.info/index.php/BJA/article/view/71817 <p><strong>Context: </strong>Variations in the shape of the superior articular facets of the atlas vertebra between male and female is an interesting aspect of physical anthropometry. So that a standard data can be established for future studies in anatomy that can help forensic experts, spine surgeons, orthopedic surgeons and radiologists to adopt appropriate plans for diagnosis &amp; treatment. <strong>Materials and methods: </strong>The study material consists of 152 (one hundred and fifty two) human dry ossified atlas vertebrae of unknown sex. The study samples were divided into male and female groups using the “discriminant function analysis technique” and the shapes of superior articular facets of atlas vertebrae were identified by simple observation method. <strong>Results: </strong>In the male atlases, 45.7% kidney- shaped, 30.9% oval- shaped, 9.9% dumb-bell shaped and 13.6% figure of 8- shaped superior articular facets were found on right side and 40.7% oval- shaped, 35.8% kidney- shaped, 16.0% dumb-bell -shaped, 7.4% figure of 8- shaped superior articular facets were found on left side. In the female atlases 62% oval -shaped, 33.8% kidney - shaped, 2.8%, dumbbell- shaped and 1.4% figure of 8 -shaped superior articular facets were found on right side and 63.4% oval, 31% kidney shaped, 4.2% dumb-bell shaped, 1.4% figure of 8- shaped superior articular facets were found on left side.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy January 2016, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 9-12</p> Sadia Rahman Shamim Ara Farhana Hossain Sharmin Rahman Afroz Ahmed Copyright (c) 2016 Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy 2016-01-01 2016-01-01 14 1 9 12 10.3329/bja.v14i1.71817 Correlation of Stature with foot Breadth at Ball and Heel from Footprint of Bangladeshi Male Medical Students https://banglajol.info/index.php/BJA/article/view/71816 <p><strong>Context: </strong>Footprint is the impression of the sole of the foot on an even flat ground or surface which provides the dimensions of size of the plantar surface of the foot actually touching the floor or a hard surface. Assessing the height of an individual from the measurements of different dimensions of foot has always been of immense interest to anatomists, anthropologists, podiatrists and industrialists involved in designing foot wears. As ossification of the bones of the foot occurs earlier than the long bones of the lower extremity, therefore even during adolescence, stature can be predicted more accurately from foot measurements than that from the long bones of the lower limb. Therefore, it has been shown that the reliability of prediction of stature from foot dimensions is as high as that from long bones. <strong>Materials and methods: </strong>A cross sectional analytical study was carried out at the Department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College Dhaka, from July 2012 to June 2013. The study was conducted on 200 male medical college students of 18-25 years of age who were selected from different medical colleges of Dhaka city and their age was determined by their national ID card. Height of the students were recorded with the help of the stadiometer. To take footprint, the sole of the feet were painted with stamp pad ink. The study was planned to determine the foot breadth at ball and heel from footprint of the male Bangladeshis and to find out the correlation of stature of Bangladeshi male medical students with their foot breadth at ball and heel from footprint. <strong>Results : </strong>Significant differences were observed between breadth at ball and heel of right and left foot (P&lt;0.001). Breadth at ball of left foot was greater than the right foot but breadth at heel was greater on the right foot than the left foot. There was highly significant correlation between stature and the breadth at ball and heel of right and left foot ( P &lt; 0.001 ).</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy January 2016, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 13-17</p> Farhana Hossain Shamim Ara Nahid Shahana Sadia Rahman Rawshon Naznin Umma Morium Farzana Maqsood Copyright (c) 2016 Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy 2016-01-01 2016-01-01 14 1 13 17 10.3329/bja.v14i1.71816 Length and Width of The Foramen Magnum of Dry Ossified Human Occipital Bone https://banglajol.info/index.php/BJA/article/view/71815 <p><strong>Context : </strong>Some important vital neuroanatomical structures such as cervical part of spinal cord, vertebral arteries, nerves and meninges passes through the foramen magnum. Morphometric data of foramen magnum is essential for anthropologists and neurosurgeons for various surgical diagnosis and treatment. <strong>Materials and Methods : </strong>A cross- sectional analytic type of study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from January 2011 to December 2011. The length and width of foramen magnum were measured with the help of digital slide calipers. <strong>Results : </strong>The mean ± SD length of foramen magnum was greater in male than mean ± SD length of foramen magnum in female (p&lt;0.001). The mean ± SD width of foramen magnum was greater in male than mean ± SD width of foramen magnum in female (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy January 2016, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 18-21</p> Kanetarin Kashem Shamim Ara Zakia Akhter Samira Hossain Copyright (c) 2016 Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy 2016-01-01 2016-01-01 14 1 18 21 10.3329/bja.v14i1.71815 The Cross-sectional Area of Tendo Achilles as Measured by Diagnostic Ultrasound https://banglajol.info/index.php/BJA/article/view/71814 <p><strong>Context: </strong>Morphology of tendo achilles can be measured in vivo and in vitro. In vitro by dissection methods, specimen are usually used. In vivo radiological measurement is most commonly practiced. In radiological aspect X-ray, Magnetic Imaging Resonance (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT) scan, ultrasonography are the recommended methods of tendo achilles measurement. All the measurements of tendo achilles vary with age, body height of the subjects and the dominance of the ankle. Aging is associated with a marked change in tendon measurements. With advancing age, there is a decrease in the size but increase in the fibril concentration of tendon thus the cross-sectional area of tendo achilles in older subjects is relatively larger. Older people and dominant ankles tend to have tendo achilles with a larger cross- sectional area. So the cross- sectional area is more accurate than the tendon thickness in assessing variations of tendon size. The aim of the study was to establish the standard reference values for the cross-sectional area (CSA) of tendo achilles as measured by diagnostic ultrasound in several age groups of sedentary people. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This is a cross sectional analytical type of study conducted in the Department of Anatomy Dhaka Medical College Hospital from July 2013 to June 2014.The present study was performed on 200 tendo achilles of 100 people (among them 50 were male and 50 were female). They were randomly selected from the patients who came to the Radiology Department of Dhaka Medical College Hospital for ultrasonography of any regions of their body other than leg. <strong>Result: </strong>Highly significant difference was observed between the cross-sectional area of tendo achilles of right and left leg in male and female (p&lt;0.001). Cross sectional area was more in male than that of female and cross-sectional area was larger in left tendon than that of right. In the present study highly significant correlation was observed between the cross-sectional area of tendo achilles with age (p&lt;0.001). Crosssectional area of left tendo achilles of the age group of 50 to 65 years was significantly higher than that of other age groups (P &lt; 0.05). But statistically no significant difference was found between the crosssectional area of right dominant and left dominant leg (p&gt;0.05). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The data of cross-sectional area of tendo achilles obtained from the present study may provide valuable information in different aspects of medical science as a guide line for physiotherapists, radiologists, sports professionals, ortho-surgeons in early detection and monitoring the rehabilitation of professional athletes.</p> <p>Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy January 2016, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 22-27</p> Sanjida Amin Shamim Ara Shahanaz Begum Afroz Ahmed Tazrin Akhter Effat Zerin Epsi Copyright (c) 2016 Bangladesh Journal of Anatomy 2016-01-01 2016-01-01 14 1 22 27 10.3329/bja.v14i1.71814