18F FDG PET-CT Imaging in Tuberculosis
Keywords:Fluorine18 fluorodeoxyglucose, PET- CT, tuberculosis
Tuberculosis (TB) is the second highest infective cause of death worldwide and the global impact of TB is very important. Among all the TB burden WHO regions, 40% TB cases accounts in the South East Asian region. It has become a medical emergency not only in developing countries but also in some high-income countries. The rising incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) TB and HIV co-infection has increased the morbidity and mortality of TB despite the availability of cheap and effective treatment. The diagnosis of active TB is almost similar over the world. Conventional radiography and Computed Tomography (CT) imaging play a crucial role in the diagnosis of TB. But these conventional imaging are often nonspecific and unable to provide a definitive diagnosis in cases of atypical and heterogeneous presentation. The signs of TB may mimic other diseases in conventional imaging. The introduction of new imaging tool Fluorine18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (18F FDG PET-CT) opens the door to evaluate its potentiality application in TB. The role of this new imaging tool in TB imaging has been well documented. 18F FDG PET-CT may assist in early diagnosis, facilitate differentiation between malignancies and TB, identification of extrapulmonary TB, staging of TB, and in assessment of treatment response. Therefore, familiarity with the spectrum of imaging features and understanding the use of 18F FDG PET-CT in diagnosis and management of TB is important, especially for referring clinicians and the reporting nuclear medicine specialists in TB burden country like Bangladesh. This article reviews the main applications, pattern of imaging spectrum with limitations of 18F FDG PET-CT in TB.
Bangladesh J. Nuclear Med. 19(2): 135-140, July 2016