Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition <p>A journal of the Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka.</p> Institute of Nturtion and Food Science University of Dhaka en-US Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition 1013-6037 Food Security and the Role of Biotechnology <p>Biotechnological approaches are given a greater significance as they continue to show promising potential to facilitate food security. These biotechnologies may consist of manipulation and interference in plant breeding (Marker-assisted plant breeding, mutational breeding) genetically manipulating the crop themselves (GM foods), or even just influencing the environmental factors to bring about the desired changes in the crop production (use of bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides).Some of the greater benefits such as, increased crop yield, enhanced nutritional quality, upgraded ability to adapt and survive, and lengthened shelf-life brought about by these techniques are making developing countries including Bangladesh lean heavily towards the increased commercialization of biotech crops. Even amidst strong oppositions and a few limitations, the popularity of Bt brinjal and the continual development of many biotech rice varieties in Bangladesh alone, further substantiate the favourability of biotech crops and their potential to better the situation favouring both the environment and the economy.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Nutr. Vol. 34, December 2020, P: 01-13</p> Parag Palit Farhana Tasnim Chowdhury Haseena Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 1 1 13 10.3329/bjnut.v34i1.69991 Analyzing the Determinants of Child Nutrition in Rural Bangladesh: Application of Quantile Regression <p>Despite recent success in achieving major development goals, Bangladesh still lags behind in respect of reducing the incidence of child undernutrition which usually causes illness, poor physical and cognitive development, or even death. Recognizing the importance of child nutrition stated in the Sustainable Development Goals, the Government of Bangladesh is keen on making success in reducing child malnutrition in the country, especially in the rural areas. In this respect, it is imperative to understand what determines child nutrition and whether or not the child nutrition determining factors exert similar effects at different points of the distribution of child nutrition. By using data from three rounds of a nationally representative rural household survey, this paper finds that child’s gender, age, and birth weight, parents’ education and their health, household’s socioeconomic status, and availability of local health care facility are crucial in determining child nutrition. Furthermore, quantile regression results suggest that the effects of these determinants tend to vary across different points of the nutritional status. Nonetheless, parents’ health and birth weight seem to have strong influence which is consistent throughout the distribution of child nutritional status. Thus, the findings of this paper have policy relevance, which is worthy of the attention of the national and international development partners in Bangladesh.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Nutr. Vol. 34, December 2020, P: 15-24</p> Mahbub Hossain M A Sattar Mandal Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 1 15 24 10.3329/bjnut.v34i1.69992 Nutrition-sensitive Food Systems: Brief Perspectives <p>Food systems – covering the ‘production to the plate’ chain – comprise food production, processing, marketing, utilization, and consumption. It facilitates peoples’ access to nutritious food in an adequate amount and variety necessary for maintaining a healthy life, irrespective of age, gender, culture, and social stratum. Food systems also address people’s access to information to facilitate their informed choice of food. To this end, food system elements and nutrition have linkages that offer opportunities for policy priorities, programs, and strategies. The trends in hunger and food insecurity, dietary consumption, and malnutrition appear to vary across the globe amidst the recurrent effects of global warming and socio-political crises which pose challenges for many developing countries to achieve the SDG 2.1 target. There is a need for strengthening the linkages between sustainable healthy diets for nutrition and between food systems and nutrition along with addressing the alterations in food systems amidst urbanization and diet changes. Policy actions should leverage nutrition sensitive agriculture and food systems with prospects for women, small holder farmers, and communities to improve diets and nutrition.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Nutr. Vol. 34, December 2020, P: 25-39</p> Lalita Bhattacharjee Richemont Seki Md Musharraf Ashraf Kraisid Tontisirin Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 1 25 39 10.3329/bjnut.v34i1.69993 Nutrition and Epidemiologic Transition on Body Composition and Dietary Pattern of Indigenous Children and Adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia <p>Malaysia has been undergoing rapid nutrition and drastic epidemiologic transition over the past two decades. This has resulted in the evolution of synergistic existence between undernutrition, overnutrition and hidden hunger. The indigenous population of Malaysia known as Orang Asli continues to experience hunger pandemic in spite of industrialisation and economic growth. The objective of this study was to appraise the impact of nutrition and epidemiologic transition among indigenous children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried among Semai Orang Asli children and adolescents (6-18 years) in Perak. Population Proportion to Size (PPS) was adopted to the sample size samples (N=747) representative of all districts in Perak. Demographic and socio-economic profile was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric measurements were recorded using World Health Organization standard protocols and 24- hour recall method was used to appraise the dietary pattern. Physical signs and symptoms for nutritional deficiencies were done with the help of trained public health nurses. The results were analyzed using SPSS22.0 software to establish possible associations. The findings showed that the incidence of underweight (2%) and malnutrition has declined significantly, with the emerging trends of overweight (19%) and obesity (0.7%) among school children and adolescents. Protein and Energy Malnutrition, Vitamin A, iron and iodine deficiencies, and dental fluorosis were commonly present among the study population. Poor inclusion of fruits and vegetables, legumes, and dairy foods leads to poor dietary diversity among these children. Nutrition and the epidemiologic transition has had a profound impact even on the indigenous population which warrants immediate attention and intervention.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Nutr. Vol. 34, December 2020, P: 41-53</p> Sylvia M Subapriya Khaleda Islam Khaleda Islam RV Lakshmi Alias Anusha Anto Cordelia Tanislaus Antony Dhanapal Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 1 41 53 10.3329/bjnut.v34i1.69994 Bioavailability of Nutrients of Public Health Concern and their Association with the Animal/Plant Ratio in Diets of Female Residential Students of Bangladesh <p>Students, particularly female students, living in university dormitories are susceptible to various nutritional deficiencies due to their improper dietary practice and poor diet quality. Whether food originates from animal or plant sources contributes greatly to the quality of their diets in terms of nutritional adequacy. This study made a bioavailability assessment of four nutrients (vitamin A, iron, protein, and zinc) from students’ diets followed by examining whether bioavailability relates to the animal/plant ratio (A/P) in the diets of female residential students (FRS) of Bangladesh. Previously published dietary algorithms or conversion factors specific to different food groups were used to assess nutrient bioavailability in the diets of 180 (60 for iron) FRS of the University of Dhaka. Nutrient inadequacy was evaluated using i) an individual diet approach (estimating bioavailability from individual diets), and ii) a dietary pattern approach (presuming average bioavailability for mixed diets). The mean absorptions of iron and zinc, quality of protein, and conversion factor for β-carotene were 15.5%, 35.1%, 66.1%, and 17:1, respectively. Among the individual diets, a large range in bioavailability was observed, which was explained inadequately by their A/P. There was a significant difference in inadequacy prevalence when iron and protein bioavailability from individual diets were compared with bioavailability estimates calculated applying average conversion factors for mixed diets. The A/P could not necessarily predict the nutrient bioavailability in FRS diets. Hence, it is important to consider the diet composition when evaluating nutrient adequacy in the diets of FRS and other students.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Nutr. Vol. 34, December 2020, P: 55-64</p> Marjia Sultana Towhid Hasan Saiful Islam Nazma Shaheen Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 1 55 64 10.3329/bjnut.v34i1.70000 Knowledge and Practice of Dietary Diversity among Pregnant Women: Evaluation of a Large Scale Social and Behaviour Change Program in Bangladesh <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) supported large-scale social and behaviour change (SBC) intervention, SHIKHA Project, in improving dietary diversity among pregnant women. Cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural southwest Bangladesh and 509, 515, and 1,275 randomly selected pregnant women were interviewed at baseline, midline, and end-line; 514 and 1016 pregnant women from non-intervention areas were also included. SBC intervention was provided to pregnant women at both individual and group levels by trained community health workers during the antenatal and postnatal period. Dietary diversity scores (DDS) and knowledge scores were calculated by summing the number of food groups (from nine defined food groups) consumed by women during 24 hours and from unprompted responses on how many food groups pregnant women should eat. The mean knowledge score for dietary diversity was 5.04 at baseline and significantly increased by 1.68 units (95% CI: 1.51, 1.85) at the end-line. The mean DDS at baseline was 4.28 and significantly increased by 0.45 units (95% CI: 0.34, 0.57) at the end-line. The SBC intervention was effective in improving the dietary diversity of pregnant women, which may help to meet their additional nutritional requirements and improve pregnancy outcomes.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Nutr. Vol. 34, December 2020, P: 65-75</p> Abu Ahmed Shamim Saidur Rahman Mashreky Alamgir Kabir Tarana Ferdous AKM Fazlur Rahman Shamim Jahan Kathrin Tegenfeldt Sumitro Roy Saydur Rahman Siddiquee Kabir Hossen Iftekhar Rashid Raisul Haque Md Ruhul Amin Nazma Shaheen Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 1 65 75 10.3329/bjnut.v34i1.70002 Health and Nutritional Implications of COVID-19: A Mini Review <p>The COVID-19 outbreak is a worldwide hazard and a pandemic. It affects primarily the respiratory system of the infected persons. The severity of infection depends on various factors such as individual health, age, lifestyle, gender, dietary habits, environment, and medications. COVID-19’s catastrophic results are exacerbated by a high BMI and chronic conditions. The study’s goal was to look at the effects of antioxidant foods on immune function and their possible involvement in the treatment of COVID-19 infection. The human immune cell is always active, and the activity of the immune system is improved when there is an infection requiring energy sources and substrates taken from the food. A range of vitamins and trace minerals has been found to have crucial functions in enhancing immune function and decreasing the chance of infection. The gut microbiota strives to empower and regulate the immune system. Dietary methods for achieving a healthy microbiome can also improve the immune system. According to worldwide standards, the best way to maintain the immune system is to consume a healthy balanced diet rich in plant and animal foods, as well as appropriate prebiotic and probiotic prophylactic supplements.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Nutr. Vol. 34, December 2020, P: 77-86</p> Tasmia Tasnim Kazi Muhammad Rezaul Karim Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 1 77 86 10.3329/bjnut.v34i1.70003 Demographic and Regional Differences in Household Dietary Diversity in Bangladesh: Evidence from the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey <p>The dietary diversity score is now being widely accepted as a tool to see the dietary intake pattern qualitatively. This tool can be used for a rapid proxy measure of household food access of the population. As the Household Income and Expenditure Survey of Bangladesh (HIES) are done routinely in many developing countries, this can be a good source of dietary data for the field of nutrition research. The study endeavoured to measure household dietary diversity scores (HDDs, 0-12) from a nationally representative population and frequency of food group consumption for the Bangladeshi population at different spatial levels from the HIES, 2010 dataset. The study found HDDs (Mean±SD) of 6.16±1.91 for Bangladeshi households. Households from Small Municipality Area(SMA) showed the highest HDDs of 6.95±2.34 followed by municipality (6.61±2.04) and rural areas (5.87±1.72).Chittagong and Sylhet division’s households’ diet is more diversified (7.09±2.12 and 6.95±1.83, respectively),whereas the lowest HDDs are found in Rajshahi (5.71±1.68). Mean differences of HDDs significantly vary by the education level of the mother, family size, number of earners, and religious status of the household. Overall, the percentages of households with no intake of meat and poultry, fruits, and milk and milk products were43.1%, 28.2%, and 48.6%, respectively, in the survey period of 14 days. HDDs varies significantly by region and household characteristics. Animal-sourced foods (meat and poultry, milk and milk products, and eggs) and fruits should be made more accessible through policies and programs at the household level across divisions where consumption is low.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Nutr. Vol. 34, December 2020, P: 87-98</p> Md Akheruzzaman Masum Ali Kazi Muhammad Rezaul Karim Md Ruhul Amin Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 1 87 98 10.3329/bjnut.v34i1.70004 Fish and Fishery Products: Participation in the Demand for Nutrition from Animal Source to the People of Bangladesh <p>Among different food items, fish/fishery product is the healthier one. For maintaining sound health and extending life span, along with fruits, vegetables, meat, fish/fishery products may contribute a lot. As a source of animal protein, healthy fat, vitamins, and minerals, fish is a very good option. The country has 0.29 million ha of inland closed (culture) water fisheries bodies along with littoral shrimp farms (National Fisheries Policy, 1998). It is also blessed with a territorial sea of more than 118,813 square km of area including 200 nautical miles (NM) of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) with all kinds of living and non-living resources under the continental shelf up to 354 nautical miles from the Chittagong coast (MoFA,2014). Fish and other aquatic organisms from these water bodies are being caught for internal consumption as well as for export purposes. Mostly, this catch is sold as wet fish; some products are also prepared traditionally like dried, salted, and fermented. Smoked, canned, fish mince-based value-added products are not prepared yet on a commercial basis. For better utilization of the county’s catch and to contribute to the nutritional demand of the people it is necessary to take proper steps. Several academic and scientific institutes of the country are being engaged in developing fishery products and observing their storage possibilities. Here, findings of some researches performed on fish and fishery products in the Department of Fisheries Technology, Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University are discussed.</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Nutr. Vol. 34, December 2020, P: 99-108</p> Md Ismail Hossain Fatema Hoque Shikha Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 1 99 108 10.3329/bjnut.v34i1.70005 The Treatment of Severe Wasting in Bangladesh: Challenges and Opportunities <p>Abstract not available</p> <p>Bangladesh J. Nutr. Vol. 34, December 2020, P: 109-111</p> Sajia Mehjabeen Copyright (c) 2021 Bangladesh Journal of Nutrition 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 34 1 109 111 10.3329/bjnut.v34i1.70007