Application of selected components of “SPICES” model as teaching-learning method in pharmacology
Keywords:Medical education, Problem-based learning, Student-centered learning, Teaching method
This study was to compare the performance of the students (future pres-cribers) of four medical colleges using three modules on rational prescribing. Marks obtained (out of 35) in ‘student-centered learning’ approach in first and second assessment were 28.3 ± 3.4 and 23.7 ± 4.2 respectively, which is significantly (p<0.01) higher than the control (12.9 ± 6.4 and 10.0 ± 6.1). Marks obtained (out of 40) in ‘problem-based learning’ approach in first and second assessment were 38.2 ± 1.5 and 32.0 ± 2.4 respectively, which is significantly (p<0.01) higher than the control (23.2 ± 3.8 and 22.7 ± 2.4). Marks obtained (out of 40) in ‘integrated learning’ approach in first and second assessment were 32.0 ± 1.8 and 28.8 ± 2.0 respectively, which is significantly (p<0.01) higher than the control (20.9 ± 2.09 and 14.3 ± 3.7). Though the marks obtained in control and all three intervention groups in first assessment was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in the second assessment. Thus, student-centered, problem based and integrated learning approaches are more effective than traditional method.
Andrews M, Jones PR. Problem-based learning in an undergraduate nursing program: A case study. J Adv Nurs. 1996; 23: 357-65.
Bangladesh Medical and Dental Council (BMDC), 2012. Curriculum for undergraduate medical education in Bangladesh: Updated 2012. Bangladesh Medical & Dental Council, Dhaka, pp 140-68.
Bateman DN, McInnes GT, Webb DJ. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics in a changing world. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999; 48: 1-3.
Begum M, Rahman MS, Islam S, Khan IA, Akhter N. Eleven years of the under graduate medical curriculum 1988: Review on the changes in pharmacology written questions. Bangladesh J Physiol Pharmacol. 1999; 15: 27-30.
Chan JCK, Wilford MM, Hughes KL. Retrieval can increase or decrease suggestibility depending on how memory is tested: The importance of source complexity. J Mem Lang. 2012; 67: 78-85.
Das AK, Rahman MS. Prescribing vitamins at primary health care level: Exploration of facts, factors and solution. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2010; 5: 92-97.
de Vries TPGMD, Henning RH, Hogerzeil HV, Fresle DA. Guide to good prescribing. Geneva, World Health Organiza-tion, 1994, pp 15-18.
Ferdoush J, Ata M, Parveen K, Reza FH, Rahman MS. Knowledge perception and preparedness of future prescribers about antimicrobial stewardship. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2016; 11: 928-34.
Geffen L. A brief history of medical education and training in Australia. Med J Aust. 2014; 201: 19-22.
Gourevitch D. The history of medical teaching. Lancet 1999; 354: 33.
Haque N, Haque M, Sultana R, Kawsar S, Islam ZM, Chowdhury SN, Anwar AN. Teaching medical students the skills required critically evaluate the drug information sources for rational prescribing: Report of an exercise on evaluation of prescribing information. Bangladesh J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005; 21: 1-4.
Harden RM, Sowden S, Dunn WR. Educational strategies in curriculum development: The SPICES model. Med Educ. 1984; 18: 284-97.
Hunkins FP. A systematic model for curriculum development [NASSP bulletin]. NASSP Bull. 1985; 69: 23-27.
Johora F, Rahman MS. Pharmacology education in the perspective of pharmaceutical promotion: Bangladesh experience. BSMMU J. 2019; 12: 128-32.
Korwin AR, Jones RE. Do Hands-on, technology-based activities enhance learning by reinforcing cognitive knowledge and retention? J Technol Educ. 1990; 1: 1-12.
Michel MC, Angela B, Karl H, Jakobs. Comparison of problem- and lecture-based pharmacology teaching. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2002; 23: 168-70.
Miller SK. A comparison of student outcomes following problem-based learning instruction versus traditional lecture learning in a graduate pharmacology course. J Am Acad Nurs Pract. 2003; 15: 550-56.
Prince MJ, Felder RM. Inductive teaching and learning methods: Definitions, comparisons, and research bases. J Eng Educ. 2006; 95: 123-38.
Rahman M, Rahman MS. Problem based learning: An overview. Bangladesh Med J. 1993; 22: 12-5.
Rahman MS, Begum M, Hoque MZ, Akhter N. Drug advertisements in medical journals: A commentary. Bangladesh J Physiol Pharmacol. 1999; 15: 31-36.
Rahman MS. New global situation in drug regulation: Redefined Responsibility of the pharmacologists. Bangladesh J Physiol Pharmacol. 1999; 15: 41-42.
Rahman MS, Kamal ASMA, Chowdhury S, Khan IA, Islam AMZ, Sultana R, Begum M, Akhter N, Anwar AKMN. Exercise on selection of P-drug: Preliminary evaluation of a newer method of pharmacotherapy teaching in Bangladesh. Bangladesh J Physiol Pharmacol. 2000; 16: 50-54.
Schacter DL, Chiao JY, Mitchell JP. The seven sins of memory: Implications for self. Ann New York Acad Sci. 2003; 1001: 226-39.
Sharma L, Sharma K, Jain M, Kumar R. Problem based integrated teaching of bronchial asthma to second MBBS students. Int Multi-Specialty J Health. 2015; 1: 28-33.
Tyler WR. Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1950, pp 56-60.
Victor R, Newfeld MD, Barrows HS. The Macmaster philosophy: An approach to medical education. J Med Educ. 1974; 49: 1040-50.
Yadav A, Subedi D, Lundeberg MA, Bunting CF. Problem-based learning: Influence on students’ learning in an electrical engineering course. J Eng Educ. 2011; 100: 253-80.
- 2021-10-01 (2)
- 2021-10-01 (1)
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Mohosina Sultana Setu, Md. Sayedur Rahman
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).