Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research <p>Full text articles available</p> en-US <p>Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) holds the copyright to all contents published in <em>Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research </em>(<em>BJSIR</em>). A copyright transfer form should be signed by the author(s) and be returned to BJSIR.</p> <p>The entire contents of the <em>BJSIR</em> are protected under Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (<em>BCSIR</em>) copyrights.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence"></a><br><em>BJSIR</em> is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (CC BY-NC)&nbsp;<a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a> which allows others remix, tweak, and build upon the articles non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.</p> (Dr Mamtaz Dawlatana) (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Fri, 19 Jun 2020 00:32:20 +0000 OJS 60 PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration and meteorological characteristics in Dhaka, Bangladesh <p>Air quality in Dhaka city is gradually deteriorating due to increase of pollutants in air. This study aims to assess the concentration of particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) and its relationship with meteorological parameters in highly polluted Dhaka city. Data for PM<sub>2.5 </sub>has been collected from the Air Now Department of State (AirNow DOS) and meteorological data from Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD). Study observed that 31.9% of hourly Air Quality Index (AQI) category was unhealthy while the percentage of ‘Good’ was very few. The maximum monthly average concentration was found to be 192.97±89.30 μg/m<sup>3</sup> in the month of January while minimum average concentration was 29.98±19.37 μg/m<sup><sub>3</sub></sup> in July. Besides, it also found that winter season had highest PM<sub>2.5</sub>concentration among all seasons. Moreover, the annual concentration was found to be 79.94±75.55 μg/m<sup>3</sup> in 2017 which exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) and World Health Organization (WHO) standard. A number of meteorological factors are affecting to this variation. It is also found that rainfall is negatively strong and significantly correlated with the concentration of PM<sub>2.5</sub>, due to ambient dust are being settle down in the lithosphere. Annual concentration of PM<sub>2.5</sub> was 5 times higher than standard level.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res</em><em>.</em><strong>55(2)</strong><strong>,</strong> 89-98, 2020</p> - Razib, AA Nayeem, MS Hossain, AK Majumder ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 16 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analgesic effect of Sansevieria longiflora (Sim) water extract and xylocaine cream on surgical wound incision in rats <p>Analgesic effect of <em>Sansevieria longiflora </em>(<em>S. longiflora</em>) on surgically created wound was studied. Phytochemical screening of the crude water extracts was carried out following standard procedures. <em>Sansevieria longiflora </em>leaves was heated and the sap was squeezed into a sample bottle to be used as it was traditional believed. Its water extract was also prepared following standard procedure. Four (4) albino rats consisting of 2 males and 2 females were used for the study. One centimeter full thickness skin incision was created on 4 different locations at the dorsal region of each rat under anaesthesia. Each of the 4 wounds created was topically treated once daily with <em>S. longiflora </em>sap (E), <em>S. longiflora </em>water extract (F), Physiological saline solution (C) and xylocaine cream (G). The treatment regimen was rotated in a clockwise direction on each rat. Pain perception was evaluated with an algometer at 6:00 GMT (morning) and 18:00 GMT (evening) from day 1 post surgery for 5 days. The phytochemical studies revealed that <em>S. longiflora </em>contains carbohydrates, glycoside, saponins, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins. Day1 after the surgery, the mean morning value of force (N) required to elicit pain in xylocaine treated wounds (5.2 ± 0.79) were significantly higher (p&lt;0.001) than that of physiological saline solution (2.8 ± 0.29) whereas, not different from that of <em>S. longiflora sap </em>(4.48 ± 0.57) and water extract (4.2 ± 0.6). Similarly, on the day 5 after the surgery, the mean morning value of force (N) required to elicit pain in xylocaine treated wounds were significantly higher (p&lt;0.0001) than that of physiological saline solution (PSS) treated wounds and not different from that of <em>S. longiflora </em>sap and water extract. This showed that <em>S. longiflora </em>sap and water extract possess analgesic effect on incisional wounds. This study serves as a preliminary study on this plant towards searching for potent analgesics that could be used for procedural pain management.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res</em><em>.</em><strong>55(2)</strong><strong>,</strong> 99-106, 2020</p> MA Kilani, AZ Hassan, ST Fadason, EO Abidoye, LO Oladimeji, AM Obalowu, HM Badmus Kilani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 16 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of amylase and protease in germinating<i>Sterculia urens</i> Roxb <p>The present study explains the levels of proteins and enzymes like proteases and amylases associated with the breakdown of proteins and carbohydrates during various stages (0 day to 15<sup>th</sup> day) of seed germination of <em>Sterculia urens </em>Roxb.. Maximum protease activity (1.12 units/mg of protein) and amylase activity was observed on 12<sup>th</sup>day of seed germination (34 units/mg of protein) and decreased thereafter. Highest protein content was observed at initial stage of seed germination and decreased thereafter. Increased proteolytic activity and amylase activity proportionately increases free amino acid content and sugars that promotes the seedlings growth and development.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res</em><em>.</em><strong>55(2)</strong><strong>,</strong> 107-112, 2020</p> S Botcha, SD Prattipati ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 16 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Seasonal variation of water quality and waste loads in Buriganga river with GIS visualization <p>Pollution status of the Buriganga river has been assessed in this study using GIS tool to analyze the spatial and seasonal distribution of several water quality parameters from six surface water sampling stations. In addition, characterization of water quality from certain selected outfalls discharging wastewater along the river was accomplished as well. The observed surface water quality concentration was higher during dry season for BOD<sub>5</sub> (13.68-22.8 mg/l), COD (22-30 mg/l), TDS (280- 303 mg/l), PO<sub>4</sub>(5.6- 7.3 mg/l) while an exception was found for NH<sub>3</sub>-N (0.67- 0.89 mg/l) and Turbidity (25.19 to 91.18). The DO level was found noticeably lower during dry season (1.73 to 2.36 mg/l) than wet season (3.27 to 4.68 mg/l). Moreover, Principal Component Analysis identified high ionic distributions during wet season and more organic pollution during dry season. Water quality parameters TDS, TSS, EC and COD were obtained in high concentration levels from industrial outfalls towards the downstream of the river while BOD<sub>5</sub>, NH<sub>3</sub>-N were higher from municipal wastewater outfalls towards the upstream of the river. The observed pollution loading from the outfalls revealed the location at Dholaikhal as the major pollution source in the river with a BOD<sub>5</sub> (11681- 12243 kg/day) and TDS (9749- 32348 kg/day) loading. Accordingly, influence of nearest wastewater sources on the surface water quality was evident through GIS representation of the parameters.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res</em><em>.</em><strong>55(2)</strong><strong>,</strong> 113-130, 2020</p> MK Alam, MA Uddin, MF Satter, N Majed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 16 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Stablization of medical waste incineration fly ash in cement mortar matrix <p>Laboratory experiments were performed to assess the suitability of using medical waste incineration fly ash in cement as a construction material based on the engineering properties of fly ash-cement matrix and the leaching potential of toxic heavy metals from the stabilized mix. Fly ash-cement samples were prepared with different proportions of fly ash (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight) in the laboratory under controlled conditions. The solidified matrix exhibited a compressive strength from 3950 to 4980 psi when fly ash is mixed in varying proportions. The 28-day compressive strength has been found to decrease with the increase in fly ash content but it meets the minimum requirement of compressive strength for cement-mortar. Soundness test exhibited acceptable results for cement-mortar mixes having up to 15% fly ash. Final and initial setting times of cement have been found to generally increase with fly ash content. Water requirement (for normal consistency) also increased with the increase in fly ash content in cement. Based on physical properties of the cement-mortar matrix it is recommended that up to 10% (by weight) medical waste incineration fly ash can be incorporated for producing cement-mortar of optimum quality. Leaching behaviors of several targeted heavy metals (As, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg and Zn) were analyzed using Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of fly ash and solidified fly ash-cement matrix which shows that the leached concentrations of As, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn were reduced by 80.13%, 89.47%, 33.33%, 23.9% and 100% respectively for 10% fly ash incorporated cement-mortar matrix compared to that of original fly ash. The leached concentrations of heavy metals from the matrix were far below the EPA land disposal limits. These results suggest that the solidified fly ash incorporated cement-mortar matrix can effectively confine and immobilize the heavy metals contained in the fly ash without significantly diminishing the engineering properties of cement-mortar.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res</em><em>.</em><strong>55(2)</strong><strong>,</strong> 131-138, 2020</p> T Ahmed, R Chowdhury, M Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 16 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Multi-phenyl structured aromatic hydrocarbon polymer <p>Multi-phenyl structured random polymer was synthesized via condensation polymerization reaction by applying different monomer ratios and characterized by various spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, 1H NMR). The prepared polymers showed good thermooxidative stability up to 400 ºC. The surface morphology was studied by FESEM that showed the good linkage among the polymer chains. The EDS data of poly(fluorenylene ether ketone), PFEK; demonstrated that all the monomers participated in the copolymerization reaction. Inherent viscosity values of the polymers were obtained in the range of 0.76∼1.12 dL g<sup>-1</sup>. The polymers’ yield was within 85~90%. The obtained results indicate that the multi-phenyl structured polymer will be the good candidates to prepare the effective aromatic hydrocarbon polymer electrolyte membrane.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res</em><em>.</em><strong>55(2)</strong><strong>,</strong> 139-146, 2020</p> MA Hossain, - Morium, M Elias, MM Rahman, MM Rahaman, MS Ali, MA Razzak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 16 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of Data Darbar Chowk of Lahore, Pakistan <p>PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in atmosphere are amongst the hazardous identified organic pollutants. The present study was conducted on the determination of PAHs concentrations in the air of Data Darbar Chowk, Lahore, Pakistan. The particulate matters in the atmosphere were collected using high volume samplers. Average Total Particulate Matter (mg) of PM<sub>2.5</sub>was 20.96 and PM<sub>10</sub>was 188.7. The concentration of PM<sub>2.5</sub>was 698.81 ngm<sup>-3</sup>/hr and 16771 ngm<sup>-3</sup>/day while concentration of PM<sub>10</sub>was 6290 ngm<sup>-3</sup>/hr and 150960 ngm<sup>-3</sup>/day. Quantification of different PAHs and related compounds was done by using Gas Chromatography. The mean total quantity of PAH in air was 955.588 ngm<sup>-3</sup>. The mean concentration of dibenzo (a, h) anthracene was highest i.e. 161.33 ngm<sup>-3</sup>with 13.94 ngm<sup>-3</sup> Minimum and 308.72 ngm<sup>-3</sup>Maximum, concentrations. PAHs concentration was found to be very high in current research. There should be proper control through air management system to tackle with harmfulness of health hazardous organic pollutants.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res</em><em>.</em><strong>55(2)</strong><strong>,</strong> 147-152, 2020</p> I Kalim, N Zahra, MK Saeed, R Gilani, A Munawar, MI Jalees ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 16 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Fatty acid composition of oil palm (<i>Elaeis guineensis</i> Jacq) fruits grown in Bangladesh <p>This study was undertaken to evaluate the fatty acid composition and other physicochemical properties of oil palm (<em>Elaeis guineensis</em>) fruits grown in Bangladesh and compared these values with crude palm oil (CPO) imported from Malaysia. Ripe and fresh oil palm <em>(Elaeis guineensis) </em>fruits were collected from different districts of Bangladesh and the crude oils were extracted by a screw press machine and was divided into three fractions: crude palm oil (CPO), degummed palm oil (DPO) and degummed bleached palm oil (DBPO). The percent yield, their physico-chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition, β-carotene, tocopherols and tocotrienols of the fractions were determined. Fatty acid composition and other physicochemical properties of Bangladeshi crude palm oil (CPO) were found to be more or less similar to the CPO imported from Malaysia.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res</em><em>.</em><strong>55(2)</strong><strong>,</strong> 153-158, 2020</p> MM Uddin, MS Yeasmin, MA Jalil, GMM Rana, ML Rahman, AKM S Alam, M Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 16 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Microwave-assisted urea catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation of aldehydes with active methylene compounds <p>Rapid and efficient method for the synthesis of substituted olefins such as 2-(4-chlorophenylmethylene) malononitrile, 2-(4-hydroxyphenylmethylene) malononitrile and 2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acrylamide etc under the influence of microwave irradiation are described. Urea has been utilized as an efficient catalyst for the Knoevenagel condensation of aldehydes with acidic active methylene compounds such as malononitrile, ethylcyanoacetate and cyanoacetamide to afford substituted olefins under the influence of microwave irradiation. The reaction proceeds smoothly under mild and solvent free conditions and the products are obtained in good yield. The method is applicable for a wide range of aldehydes including aromatic and heterocyclic substrates.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res</em><em>.</em><strong>55(2)</strong><strong>,</strong> 159-164, 2020</p> WT Purba, PS Roy, S Jannat, SA Begum, MM Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 16 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000