Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Full text articles available en-US <p>Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) holds the copyright to all contents published in <em>Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research </em>(<em>BJSIR</em>). A copyright transfer form should be signed by the author(s) and be returned to BJSIR.</p><p>The entire contents of the <em>BJSIR</em> are protected under Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (<em>BCSIR</em>) copyrights. <em></em></p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br /><em>BJSIR</em> is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (CC BY-NC) <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a> which allows others remix, tweak, and build upon the articles non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.</p> (Dr Mamtaz Dawlatana) (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Sun, 09 Dec 2018 08:32:01 +0000 OJS 60 Facile synthesis of oriented zinc oxide seed layer for the hydrothermal growth of zinc oxide nanorods <p>Oriented zine oxide (ZnO) seed layers were deposited by simple drop casting of zinc acetate dihydrate (ZAD) solution on glass substrates at room temperature followed by a post-heat treatment at 250 oC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses revealed that ZAD solutions with concentration 0.0025 – 0.0100 M produced amorphous type thin films, whereas 0.0200 M ZAD solutions produced ZnO seed layers with a preferential c-axis texturing.The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses evident that the morphology of ZnO seed layer surface is compact and coherently carpets the underlying glass substrate. ZnO nanorods were then grown by hydrothermal method atop the ZnO seeded and non-seeded substrates. The presence of ZnO seeding layers was found to be beneficial for growing ZnO NRs films vertically. The optical bandgap of ZnO seed and ZnO NR were estimated to be in the range of 3.40 – 3.95 eV and 3.20 – 3.25 eV respectively by using UV-VIS-NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The room temperature photoluminescence analyses revealed that nanostructured ZnO films exhibit a sharp near-band-edge luminescence peak at ~380 nm consistent with the estimated optical band gap and the ZnO nanorod arrays are notably free from defect-related green-yellow emission peaks.<em></em></p><p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>53(4)</strong>, 233-244, 2018</p> SFU Farhad, NI Tanvir, MS Bashar, MS Hossain, M Sultana, N Khatun ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 09 Dec 2018 08:30:26 +0000 Bioactive ingredients of local garlic variety from Pakis <p>The health claims of locally grown garlic variety/line lehsan gulabi (garlic pink) for the management of serum glucose were explored. In efficacy study, garlic based diets given to the rats <em>i.e. </em>whole garlic (G<sub>1</sub>), garlic powder (G<sub>2</sub>) and garlic oil (G<sub>3</sub>) resulted in reduction in glucose, serum creatinine and serum urea levels, ALT, AST and ALP and elevation in serum insulin as compared to control (G<sub>0</sub>). The weight of rats substantially suppressed after the intake of different garlic preparations. It is deduced that garlic feeding may prove beneficial in weight management program. The whole garlic consumption proved more effective. The garlic oil caused highest glucose reduction (9.38%). Garlic oil alleviates glucose and insulin related abnormalities more efficiently. Additionally, treatments imparted significant effect on liver and kidney functioning. In the nutshell, pink garlic has potential to curtail different physiological malfunctioning. Thus diet based therapy by selecting suitable food ingredients should be encouraged as a preventive device against various metabolic syndromes among the vulnerable segments in the developing economies.<em></em></p><p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>53(4)</strong>, 245-252, 2018</p> M Ashraf, MS Butt, I Ahmad, MK Saeed, Q Syed, FH Shah, M Shaheen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 09 Dec 2018 08:30:36 +0000 Effects of drying pattern on aflatoxin in stored paddy rice <p>This study was done to evaluate the impact of drying pattern on the accumulation of aflatoxin in paddy rice during storage. Two drying pattern includes, 1) single step drying to reduced the moisture content of paddy rice 11-12 % within 6 hours and stored for long time; and 2) two steps drying to reduce the moisture up to 18%, in its first step and stored for short term (2 weeks) and in the second step, dried again to reduce the moisture content up to 11-12% and stored for longer time, with twenty five different paddy rice samples having moisture content ranging from 24-22 % were evaluated for the accumulation of aflatoxins in paddy rice during storage. In addition, this study also evaluated the best drying method that can control the accumulation of aflatoxin during prolong storage. The study results revealed that one step drying is safer than that of two steps drying in accumulating aflatoxins in paddy rice during 210 days of storage. The maximum total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1,G2) was recorded as 27 ppb in paddy rice sample in two steps drying process, on the other hand, non-detectable level or &lt;10 ppb level of aflatoxins was recorded in all the 25 paddy rice s amples analyzed.<em></em></p><p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>53(4)</strong>, 253-258, 2018</p> S Masood, Alim un Nisa, S Hina, I Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 09 Dec 2018 08:30:45 +0000 Effect of arsenic on Amaranthus gangeticus <p>Groundwater arsenic contamination has become a threat to the crop production potential in the soils of vast areas of Bangladesh. Situation is grave in some districts of the country, particularly the southern part. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of arsenic treated irrigation water (0, 1, 2, 5 and 10 mgL-1), where a total of ten (10) irrigations were provided thus the treatments received 0, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg arsenic (As) pot-1. Effects of applied levels of arsenic on <em>Amaranthus gangeticus </em>(Lal shak) were evaluated in terms of the growth, yield, major nutrients’ content, and their translocation in the plant. As treatments significantly reduced (p≤0.05) the dry weight of shoot and root by 19.31% and 44.03% respectively. Both total and available concentrations of nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were significantly (p≤ 0.05) suppressed by the As treatments, while only higher three doses significantly (p≤ 0.05) affected both levels of concentrations of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). Translocation coefficients for soil to root for P, K, S, and Mg were significantly reduced (p≤ 0.05), while translocation coefficients for root to shoot were significantly increased (p≤ 0.05) for K and S by 5 and 10 mgL-1 of arsenic treatments.<em></em></p><p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>53(4)</strong>, 259-264, 2018</p> MZ Hossain, Sushmita Dey, MS Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 09 Dec 2018 08:30:53 +0000 Antioxidant properties of Ageratum conyzoides L. Asteraceae leaves <p><em>In vitro </em>antioxidative and anti-lipid peroxidative properties of aqueous and methanol extracts of <em>Ageratum conyzoides </em>leaves were studied in controlling erectile dysfunction caused by oxidative stress. Methanol extract gave a significantly (<em>P </em>˂ 0.05) higher content of total phenolic (61.4 mgGAE/g), total flavonoid (42.2 mgQE/g), ascorbic (10.1 mgAAE/100g) and phosphomolybdate (45.8 mgAAE/g) than the aqueous extract. The result showed that the extracts have high antioxidant activities. However, the methanol extract showed a higher DPPH and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities over aqueous extract but the aqueous extract had a higher reducing power. The methanol extract exhibited a greater inhibition against lipid peroxidation induced by Fe<sup>2+</sup> in rat pancreas and penile tissue homogenate exemplified by their least IC50 (94.21 μg/ml in pancreas) and (75.95 μg/mL in penile tissue) while in rat brain homogenate the aqueous extract exhibited a greater inhibition against lipid peroxidation induced by Fe<sup>2+</sup> with least IC50 of 91.74 μg/mL. Hence, these extracts can be used as a potent natural antioxidant against free radicals and as a natural source of combating erectile dysfunction caused by oxidative stress. The extracts of <em>Ageratum conyzoides </em>leaves could be useful therapeutically as erectogenic agent.<em></em></p><p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>53(4)</strong>, 265-276, 2018</p> FO Adetuyi, KO Karigidi, ES Akintimehin, ON Adeyemo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 09 Dec 2018 08:30:59 +0000 In vitro micropropagation of Jasminum grandiflorum L. <p>An efficient protocol was developed for <em>in vitro </em>plant regeneration of <em>Jasminum grandiflorum </em>L. The highest elongated shoots (60%) were achieved from axillary meristems using MS (Murashige and Skoog ) basal medium supplemented with 1 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BAP) and 60 mg/l coconut water. After adding 1.0 mg/l BAP and 45 mg/l coconut water in the culture medium, the highest rate of shoot proliferation was exhibited after 4 weeks of culture. Rooting was found within 14-23 days after the cut end of shoots was soaked in 1.5 mg/l IBA solution for 3-7 minutes. The regenerated healthy rooted plantlets were transferred to small plastic pot containing garden soil and compost in a ratio of 2:1. Maximum (75%) <em>in vitro </em>rooted plants were survived in the shade house and finally survived naturally in soil condition. The successful protocol for <em>in vitro </em>regeneration was developed which will facilitate the conservation and propagation of the important medicinal plant.<em></em></p><p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>53(4)</strong>, 277-282, 2018</p> Md S Rahman, NJ Mouri, NC Nandi, S Akter, Md S Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 09 Dec 2018 08:31:08 +0000 Integrated humification of poultry waste <p>In this study effects of adding chemical and microbial agents in the humification process of poultry wastes were carried out. Chemicals and microbes play a vital role to accelerate the humification process. <em>Salmonella </em>and lime were applied individually to observe the variation in maturity and stability parameters like degree of polymerization (DP), C/N, humification rate (HR), humification index (HI), cation exchange capacity (CEC), and nitrate nitrogen concentration of the humified poultry wastes. Thus it was acclaimed that the microorganisms <em>Salmonella </em>encourage the compost formation where as humification with lime proceeded relatively with a lesser time than <em>Salmonella</em>. Furthermore, the decline in carbon and nitrogen ratio and increase in CEC, DP, HR, HI, potassium and phosphorous were recognized in a higher scale in chemically treated wastes compared to that of microbial one. It was concluded that use of chemicals reduce the quantum of waste in minimum time.</p><p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>53(4)</strong>, 283-288, 2018</p> Maryam Mushtaq, MK Iqbal, A Nadeem, RA Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 09 Dec 2018 08:31:15 +0000 Effects of inorganic and organic nutrients combindly used on yield and quality of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) <p>This experiment was done to study the effects of combined use of inorganic and organic nutrients on yield and quality of groundnut (<em>Arachis hypogaea </em>L.). Treatment were full doses of NPK fertilizers (N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O @ 16:45:45 kg/ha) alone, Farmyard manure (FYM) @ 15 ton/ha alone and half doses of NPK fertilizers with FYM @ 7.5 ton/ha as basal application with or without N @14 kg/ha as top dressing. The results show that highest seed yield (2558.02 kg/ha) was obtained in NPK @ 22.0:22.5:22.5 kg/ha plus FYM @ 7.5 ton/ha followed by FYM @15 ton/ha with N @ 14 kg/ha (2521.98 kg/ha). The highest protein (29.9 g) and oil (45.6%) contents were recorded in plot treated with FYM alone. It can be concluded that when compared to the standard control, NPK fertilizers @ 22.0:22.5:22.5 kg/ha with FYM @ 7.5 ton/ha gave higher seed yield as well as protein (28.8 g) and oil (38%) contents with less environmental impact.</p><p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>53(4)</strong>, 289-296, 2018</p> Thayamini H Seran ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 09 Dec 2018 08:31:21 +0000 Organic amendments of soil and its effect on the NPK contents in rice plants grown on saline soil <p>The potential and effectiveness of the indigenous organic amendments such as rice hull (RH), rice straw (RS) and sawdust (SD) at the rates of 0, 2 and 4 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively on N, P and K contents of BRRI Dhan-47 grown on saline soil under variable moisture (field moist: FM and 2-5 cm standing water: SW) levels were evaluated in the field experiment. The N, P and K contents in the shoot at maturity stage of rice increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) by the individual and the combined application of these amendments. The maximum contents of N (26.7 g kg<sup>-1</sup>: FM and 25.7 g kg<sup>-1</sup>: SW) were attained by the T<sub>27</sub> (RH<sub>4</sub>SD<sub>4</sub>RS<sub>4</sub>) followed by the T<sub>26</sub> (RH<sub>4</sub>SD<sub>4</sub>RS<sub>2</sub>) treatments. Among the three types of amendments regardless of their doses, the application of RS exerted best response (16.75 g N kg<sup>-1</sup>) followed by SD (16.35 g N kg<sup>-1</sup>) and RH (16.04 g N kg<sup>-1</sup>) in increasing N content of rice plants at field moist condition of the soil. The maximum P contents (2.49 g kg<sup>-1</sup>: FM and 2.67 g kg<sup>-1</sup>: SW) were recorded by the T27 (RH<sub>4</sub>SD<sub>4</sub>RS<sub>4</sub>) followed by the T<sub>26</sub> (RH<sub>4</sub>SD<sub>4</sub>RS<sub>2</sub>) treatments and the lowest contents of P (0.40 g kg<sup>-1</sup>: FM and 0.42 g kg<sup>-1</sup>: SW) were obtained from the control plots. The content of P in rice shoots was slightly higher in SW than that of FM conditions. The maximum contents of K (18.2 g kg<sup>-1</sup> in FM and 15.8 g kg<sup>-1</sup> in SW) were obtained by the application of RH<sub>4</sub>SD<sub>4</sub>RS<sub>4</sub> (T<sub>27</sub>) followed by the RH<sub>4</sub>SD<sub>4</sub>RS<sub>2</sub> (T<sub>26</sub>) and the lowest contents of K (2.8 g kg<sup>-1</sup>: FM; 2.7 g kg<sup>-1</sup>: SW) were determined in the control plots. The contents of N and K in rice shoots were slightly higher in the FM than those of the SW conditions regardless of these amendments.</p><p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>53(4)</strong>, 297-304, 2018</p> MS Hossain, HR Khan, S Akter ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 09 Dec 2018 08:31:26 +0000 Mulches enhanced growth and yield of onion <p>The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of mulches on soil nutrients and microclimate status, growth and bulb yield of onion <em>cv</em>. Taherpuri. The experiment was comprised of six mulches viz., i) Control (no mulch), ii) Black polythene sheet, iii) White polythene sheet, iv) Rice straw, v) Water hyacinth and vi) Saw dust. Application of different mulches improved soil microclimates, increased plant growth and bulb yield over control. Among the mulches, black polythene mulch showed superiority in growth and yield contributing characters compared to other mulches, resulting the highest bulb yield.<em></em></p><p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>53(4)</strong>, 305-310, 2018</p> MG Rachel, MMA Mondal, MHR Pramanik, MA Awal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 09 Dec 2018 08:31:33 +0000 Effect of germination on biochemical changes in high yielding barley (Hordium vulgare L.) varieties <p>The effect of germination was evaluated on the nutritional properties and enzyme activities of three barley (<em>Hordium vulgare </em>L.) varieties namely BARI Barley-4, BARI Barley-5 and BARI Barley-7 produced by Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI). The nutritional compositions and enzymatic activities (α-amylase and protease) in both raw and germinated seeds were changed gradually with germination period. Protein content of germinated seeds for BB-4, BB-5 and BB-7 was recorded as 13.65%, 14.34% and 13.95% respectively. Maximum increase of protein was 20.81% for BB-5 at 48 hours of germination. Gradual decrease was observed at 72 hours of germination and maximum decrease was 7.66% for BB-5 but protein content was higher than non germinated seeds. Enzyme activity of α-amylase and protease showed the results 2.20 U/g BB-5 and 1.16 U/g BB-4. Highest increase of α-amylase and protease activity were found 125.53% for BB-7 and 107.55% for BB-5 at 48 hours of germination. The highest amount of total and reducing sugar was 12.58% for BB-5 and 1.97% for BB-7 respectively at 72 hours of germination. The maximum increase of total sugar was 240.00% and in reducing sugar it was 79.09% for BB-5 and BB-7 respectively. Highest calcium, phosphorus and iron contents were 39.70 (mg/100g), 273.91 (mg/100g) and 8.37 (mg/100g) for BB-4 and BB-7 respectively. The maximum increases of calcium and iron contents were 33.26% and 85.58% for BB-4 and BB-7 respectively at 48 hours of germination. Germinated barley seeds contain more protein with other easily digestible biomolecule than non germinated seeds.</p><p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>53(4)</strong>, 311-318, 2018</p> MM Rahman, SS Binte Salam, U Fatema Shahjadee, A Zerin Rupa, M Mashiar Rahman, A Kalam Azad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 09 Dec 2018 08:31:38 +0000 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from a Nigerian bitumen seepage: Gas chromatography- mass spectrometry quantification <p>Bitumen exploration was flagged off at Irele, a Nigerian field in 2003. The relationship between the seepage pollutants and receiving water bodies is the focus of this study. We hereby present the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) level in two categories of bitumen contaminated waters; source (RS) and delivery (RD) points. Results were compared with uncontaminated water (RC) as control experiment. The PAHs were extracted by Liquid-Liquid extraction using dichloromethane and analyzed by Gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS). The mean concentration of PAHs was 8.39, 3.93 and 0.57 ppb for source, delivery point and control respectively. The Benzo[e]pyrene concentrations obtained were higher than 1-10 ppb in most samples, indicating anthropogenic and petrogenic sources of the pollutants. Most of the PAH concentrations obtained were within natural concentrations, However, Benzo (e) pyrene and Indenol (1, 2, 3 – cd) pyrene exceeded the expected limit. The predominance of 4-6 member ring showed that the PAHs were more of pyrolytic than mixed sources. Method validation gave the Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification values in the range of 0.03-0.12 and 0.10-0.61 respectively. The Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC) coefficient (r) was used to determine the interactions of the PAHs detected with parametric factors. All the physicochemical parameters studied except pH shows positive correlation. Statistical test at P &lt;0.05 indicated that the difference in PAHs concentrations is not significant when compared with maximum acceptable PAHs concentration (MAC) for water, which is an indication that the water is safe.<em></em></p><p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>53(4)</strong>, 319-326, 2018</p> AU Itodo, R Sha’Ato, MI Arowojolu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 09 Dec 2018 08:31:47 +0000 Synthesis of potential pharmaceutically active dihydropyrimidine-2-oxo and their 2-thio analogues <p>The Biginelli one - pot three-component cyclocondensation was applied to prepare 3, 4 - dihydropyrimidin - 2 (1<em>H</em>) – ones from aldehydes, β-dicarbonyl compounds and urea (or thiourea) using ZnCl<sub>2</sub> as a catalyst. The method offers several advantages including short reaction times and easy experimental work up procedures.<em></em></p><p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>53(4)</strong>, 327-332, 2018</p> ME Halim, K Akhter, M Hasan, MM Rahman, UKR Romman, MG Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 09 Dec 2018 08:31:55 +0000