Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Full text articles available en-US <p>Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) holds the copyright to all contents published in <em>Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research </em>(<em>BJSIR</em>). A copyright transfer form should be signed by the author(s) and be returned to BJSIR.</p><p>The entire contents of the <em>BJSIR</em> are protected under Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (<em>BCSIR</em>) copyrights. <em></em></p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br /><em>BJSIR</em> is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (CC BY-NC) <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a> which allows others remix, tweak, and build upon the articles non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.</p> (Dr Mamtaz Dawlatana) (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Mon, 10 Jun 2019 11:15:25 +0000 OJS 60 Mutagenic effects of ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiation on the anatomy of three species of Capsicum <p>UV radiant seedlings of <em>Capsicum annuum, C. Chinenese </em>and <em>Capsicum frutescens </em>were studied anatomically to observe the UV effects on the leaf epidermis, stem and root ultrastructures. While there is a higher percentage of stomatal index in the UV-exposed plants compared to the controlled, unexposed plants, there is no correlation in the stomatal density and stomatal size between the exposed and unexposed plants to the ultraviolet irradiation. There was also no correlation between the stomatal size and the stomatal density in both treatments (exposed and unexposed) in all the plants. Significant differences were observed in the stomatal index on both leaf surfaces between the exposed and controlled plants of <em>C. frutescens </em>and <em>C. annuum. </em>Cell walls of the stem and root wereobserved to be thicker in the UV-exposed plants.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(2)</strong>, 111-116, 2019</p> KA Abdul Kareem, TJ Olobatoke, AA Abdul Rahaman, OT Mustapha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Jun 2019 18:20:59 +0000 In vitro regeneration and molecular characterization of some varieties of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Bangladesh <p>An efficient regeneration protocol was established for two varieties (BARI tomato-9 and BARI tomato-15) of tomato (<em>Lycopersicon esculentum </em>Mill.) using three explants namely cotyledonary node, cotyledonary leaf and hypocotyls. Among the three explants, maximum number of shoots was produced from cotyledonary leaf explants of BARI tomato-15 on MS with 2.0 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l IAA. In this combination of BAP and IAA 86%, on an average, cotyledonary leaf explants showed regeneration response 14.12 shoots/explants. Explants from hypocotyl showed best results in MS medium with 2.0 mg/l BAP and 0.2 mg/l IAA in both the varieties. In case of cotyledonary node, BARI tomato-15 showed 6.0 shoot/explant on MS with 2.0 mg/l BAP and 1.0 mg/l IAA. Molecular characterization of total ten varieties of tomato in Bangladesh was done by using six arbitrary oligonucleotide RAPD primers. A total of 140 bands were produced where the highest genetic distance (0.6769) was found between BARI tomato-3 and Mintoo tomato and lowest distance (0.1035) was observed between BARI tomato-7 and BARI tomato-8. This result will be useful for designing future breeding programs.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(2)</strong>, 117-124, 2019</p> M Billah, TA Banu, M Islam, NA Banu, S Khan, S Akter, A Habib ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Jun 2019 18:21:09 +0000 Protein enriched breakfast meal from sweet potato and African yam bean mixes <p>Protein malnutrition is common in the developing countries due to gross intake of foods high in carbohydrate and lipids. Fortification and diversification of food crops are key players in reducing protein malnutrition and the associated health risks. This research evaluated nutritional components of breakfast food obtained from mixes of Sweet potato (SP) and African yam bean (AYB). SP and AYB were pressure cooked using autoclave at 121oC for 10 and 60 minutes, respectively. Blends of SP and AYB at 100:0, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, and 70:30 were used to produce a tasty and ready-to-eat breakfast food. Products were analyzed for proximate compositions. Physical and sensory attributes of the products were evaluated. Significant (p&lt;0.05) higher protein (5.10-8.83%), fat (0.49-0.84%) and ash (2.33-2.84%) values were observed in samples with inclusion of AYB than meal produced from 100% SP. The physical properties of ready-to-eat meal blended with AYB revealed substantial values in the bulk density (0.86-1.00%), swelling index (5.03-6.77%), water absorption (3.80-5.20%) and fat absorption (1.00-1.27%) capacities. Sample with 15% AYB inclusion had higher scores for taste, colour, flavour, and overall acceptability by panellists when compared with other fortified samples. The formulated food has increased protein contents with good functional and sensory attributes.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(2)</strong>, 125-130, 2019</p> GO Babarinde, JA Adeyanju, AM Omogunsoye ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Jun 2019 18:21:17 +0000 Peroxidase from infected fruit of Solanum sp. grown in Nsukka <p>In this study, we characterized the activity of peroxidase a quality control enzyme from the infected fruit of <em>Solanum </em>sp. Peroxidase was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, ion exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was 63000 da. The enzyme was shown to have two iso-enzymes with distinct optimum pH of 4.5 and 7.0 and optimum temperature of 40 and 70⁰C. The purified enzyme had broad substrate specificity with o-dianisidine being the ideal substrate. Na<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, Mn<sup>2+</sup>, Cu<sup>2+</sup>, Al<sup>3+</sup> were shown to be activators of the enzyme, while the peroxidase activity was severely inhibited by Co<sup>2+</sup>.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(2)</strong>, 131-138, 2019</p> Omeje KO, Eze SOO, FC Chilaka ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Jun 2019 18:21:29 +0000 In-vitro and in-vivo antibacterial effect of Croton lobatus Linnaeus L. on two days post surgical wounds in rats <p>Phytochemical constituents of <em>Croton lobatus </em>L. (<em>C. lobatus</em>) water extracts and quantitative analysis were carried out following standard procedures. The antibacterial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(ATCC 33591); <em>Streptococcus Spp</em>; <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>(ATCC 9028); <em>Proteus vulgaris</em>; <em>Escherichia coli </em>(ATCC 43895); and <em>Salmonella Spp </em>(ATCC 4932) was carried out at the concentration of 0.5g/mL, 0.05 g/mL and 0.00 5g/mL of water. <em>In vivo </em>antimicrobial assay was carried out by creating four wounds of 0.5 by 0.5 cm on dorsal surface of a male albino rat under anesthesia. The wounds were left for 48 hrs, after which they were accessed and samples were collected for culture, identification and colony forming unit counts (CFU). Respective treatment using dried <em>C. lobatus</em>, <em>C. lobatus </em>(water extract), Physiological saline solution and Cicatrin powder was carried out and samples were collected at day one, three, five and seven after initiation of treatments for CFU counts on nutrient and MacConkey agar. The phytochemical studies revealed that <em>C. lobatus </em>contains carbohydrates, glycoside, saponins, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins. <em>Croton lobatus </em>L. showed a dose dependent activity against micro organisms with <em>C. lobatus </em>0.5 inhibited the growth of most bacteria at the zone of inhibition ≤ 21mm. This was also supported by <em>in vivo </em>antimicrobial assay. Secondary metabolite tannins, triterpenoids, flavonoids, crotonic acids and saponin were responsible for its antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms thereby supporting its usage by the traditional medicine practitioner in Nigeria to treat chronic wounds.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(2)</strong>, 139-146, 2019</p> MA Kilani, AZ Hassan, ST Fadason, AM Obalowu, A Aliyu, HM Badmus Kilani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Jun 2019 18:21:41 +0000 Stimulating effect of fermented ginseng leaf saponin on the differentiation and mineralization of murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells <p>In this study, abundant ginseng leaf saponins were converted into minor ginsenosides that havemore pharmacological efficacy via fermentation process using recombinant β-glucosidase (bgp1). This fermented product was used to investigate the stimulatory effect on differentiation and mineralization of murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. All major ginsenosides which areavailable in ginseng leaf were biotransformed into more pharmacologically active minor ginsenosides within a short time of incubation. The results showed that 100% of ginsenoside Rd, Rg1and Re were decomposed and transformed to Rg3, Rh1and Rg2, respectively within 03 (three) hours of incubation. Ginseng leaf saponin contains 17.1% Rg1, 44.9% Re, 10.8% Rd, 4.8% Rb1, 5.7% Rb2, 6.9% Rc,2.7% Rg2, and 6.8% F1 ginsenoside. But after fermentation, the products contain mostly pharmacological active minor ginsenosides including 42.2% Rg2, 13.7% Rg3, 8.8% Rh1, 4.9% F1 and 3.6% PPT ginsenosides. Moreover, we investigated and compared the effect of leaf saponins (LS) and fermented leaf saponins (FLS), on the differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Treatment with FLS remarkably enhanced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. FLS notably stimulated the ALP activity, Coll-I synthesis and mineralization ability of MC3T3-E1 cells. Based on the comparison between LS and FLS, it is clear that FLS has good effect on differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone formation. Therefore, bgp1-fermented ginseng leaf saponins could be a novel treatment for osteoporosis prevention.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(2)</strong>, 147-154, 2019</p> MA Huq, MH Siddiqi, YJ Kim, S Akter, DC Yang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Jun 2019 18:21:52 +0000 Design and development of solar dryer for food preservation <p>Solar thermal energy is an alternative source of energy which can be used for drying vegetables, fishes, fruits or other kinds of material, such as wood. In Bangladesh, there exist significant post-harvest losses of agricultural products due to lack of the use of proper preservation system. Drying by using solar thermal energy can be an effective solution for this loss. As Bangladesh is situated in latitude 23°43’N and longitude 90°26’E, this is very much suitable to use solar thermal energy. To reduce the limitations of the natural sun drying e.g. exposure of the foodstuff to rain and dust; uncontrolled drying; exposure to direct sunlight; infestation by insects etc., two types of solar dryer (low cost solar dryer for small production and solar dryer for large production) were developed. The design was based on the geographical location of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The experiments were conducted to dry vegetables and fishes. The obtained results revealed that the temperatures inside the dryer were much higher than the ambient temperature. The rapid rate of drying proves its ability to dry food to keep in safe moisture level in a hygienic environment. Microbiological and nutritional values ensure a superior quality of the dried product also.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(2)</strong>, 155-160, 2019</p> S Tabassum, MS Bashar, MS Islam, A Sharmin, SC Debnath, S Parveen, SAA Khanom ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Jun 2019 18:22:02 +0000 Rain water quality assessment as air quality indicator in Pakistan <p>Rain is an effective way for removing pollutants from the atmosphere. The present study was initiated to determine rain water quality for its safe use as potable water, as well as a tool for indirect evaluation of air quality of different study areas. A total of 20 rain water samples were collected from areas including Kasur, Sheikhupura, Gujranwala and Lahore. The pH (5.49 + 0.323), turbidity (12.267 + 5.933NTU), Cl- (4785 + 1458.32ppm) and F- (16.44 + 4.52ppm) contents of samples are not in compliance with drinking water quality limits (Pakistan, WHO). Average sulphate (1.396 + 0.384 ppm) and NO3 − concentrations (52.35 + 12.11ppm) varied between 1.005-2.05ppm and 36.79-81.3ppm, respectively. Heavy metals analysis showed presence of Cu, Co, Mn and Zn concentrations below WHO limits while Cd and Pb concentrations exceeded WHO limits with values ranging between 0.005ppm-0.017ppm and 19ppm-254ppm, respectively . Findings indicate that rain water can provide an insight into the air quality of an area and its potential use as an alternative to drinking water, especially in areas of short domestic water supply.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(2)</strong>, 161-168, 2019</p> G Yaqub, A Hamid, S Asghar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Jun 2019 18:22:11 +0000 In vitro quality evaluation of metformin hydrochloride tablets marketed in Addis Ababa <p>In this study, an attempt was made to assess quality as well as pharmaceutical equivalence of six brands of metformin hydrochloride tablets marketed in Addis Ababa using <em>in vitro </em>methods. Friability, disintegration, dissolution and assay for the content of active ingredients were evaluated using the methods described in the United States pharmacopeia (2007). All the brands of metformin hydrochloride tablets complied with the official specification for hardness, friability, disintegration and assay. Five brands of metformin hydrochloride complied with the USP dissolution tolerance limits but Metformin Denk failed to release the stated amount. Statistical comparison for <em>in vitro </em>drug release indicates that some of the products of metformin hydrochloride tablets showed significant difference (P&lt;0.05), indicating difference in their <em>in vitro </em>drug release that might affect the <em>in vivo </em>bioavailability and the bioequivalence of the products<em>.</em></p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(2)</strong>, 169-176, 2019</p> H Kassahun, K Asres, A Ashenef ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Jun 2019 18:22:22 +0000 Amelioration of lead (Pb) from contaminated soil using organic amendments <p>Pot experiments were conducted at the department of Soil, Water and Environment, University of Dhaka to evaluate the effect of used tea leaves and poultry litter in ameliorating lead uptake and to alleviate toxicity of lead in Red amaranth (<em>Amaranthus tricolor </em>L<em>.</em>). The length, fresh weight and dry weight of shoot was decreased significantly by 34.83, 34.69 and 36.48%, respectively, in 200 mg kg-1 Pb treated pots compared to the control. The similar significant decreasing trend in case of macro nutrient concentration in shoot and root samples were also observed. %N, P, K, S, Mg and Ca concentration in edible parts (shoots) decreased by 66.3, 5.27, 52.17, 30.32, 61.54 and 62.87% in 200 mg kg1 lead (Pb) treated pots compared to the control. On the other hand Pb concentration in shoot and root was the highest at 200 mg kg-1Pb treated pots (55 and 189 mg kg-1 pot-1) and the lowest was in the control treatment (0.45 and 20 mg kg-1 pot-1). Biomass production were positively influenced by the application of organic amendments as well as lead uptake was significantly ameliorated into Red amaranth shoot and root due to application of used tea leaves and poultry litter which reduced soil to plant transfer (TrF) of Pb by 47.39, 56.34 and 16.67, 22.22% in shoots and roots of red amaranth, respectively, compared to the untreated pots.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(2)</strong>, 177-186, 2019</p> MN Mondol, KA Hussain, MR Zubaer, MA Hossain, AS Chamon ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Jun 2019 18:22:31 +0000 Sexual dimorphism of Canthophrys gongota (Teleostei: Cobitidae) using landmark-based geometric morphometrics in the Atrai river of Bangladesh <p>Studies on sexual dimorphism of gongota Loach <em>Canthophrys gongota </em>(Local name: Pahari Gutum) was performed capturing them from the Atrai River of Dinajpur district in Bangladesh. Females had light blotches and patches with thick and rounded pectoral and pelvic fins while males having dark blotches and patches with thin and comparatively pointed paired fins. Body size, lengths of the anal fin and distances between the bases of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fins were significantly different (5.62 &lt; F &lt; 11.65, P ˂ 0.05) between the sexes of <em>C. gongota</em>. The expansion factors of mean thin-plate grids and vectors also showed that the head region of males was statistically different from females, whereas abdomen and tail of the females were considerably broader than those of the males. Both PCA (principal component analysis) and DFA (discriminant function analysis) plots showed morphologically little overlapping of landmark points which discriminated the females from the males. These findings are the first records on the sexual dimorphism of this rare species that would be baseline in a future study.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(2)</strong>, 187-194, 2019</p> MM Akter, MG Azom, MS Reza Sabuz, MH Islam, MR Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Jun 2019 18:22:44 +0000