Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Full text articles available en-US <p>Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR) holds the copyright to all contents published in <em>Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research </em>(<em>BJSIR</em>). A copyright transfer form should be signed by the author(s) and be returned to BJSIR.</p><p>The entire contents of the <em>BJSIR</em> are protected under Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (<em>BCSIR</em>) copyrights. <em></em></p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br /><em>BJSIR</em> is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (CC BY-NC) <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a> which allows others remix, tweak, and build upon the articles non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.</p> (Dr Mamtaz Dawlatana) (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Fri, 23 Aug 2019 04:07:46 +0000 OJS 60 Development of a mathematical model for alkylation of m-cresol with α-methylstyrene using anhydrous aluminium chloride <p>Alkylaromatic compounds such as alkylphenols are the most wide spread and efficient material due to its broad practical utilization in different arenas including antioxidants, stabilizers for fuels, lubricating oils, polymeric materials and so on. In this work, (2-phenylpropan-2-yl) <em>m</em>-cresol with high yield was prepared from the reaction between <em>m</em>-cresol and _-methylstyrene in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride catalyst. Plackett-Burman design was applied for screening significant variables, such as, temperature, molar ratio of <em>m</em>-cresol to _-methylstyrene, time of reaction and amount of catalyst etc. to determine an optimum condition for the production of (2-phenylpropan-2-yl) <em>m</em>-cresol. Moreover, a 23 Yates pattern factorial design was used to develop a mathematical model to predict the yield of alkylation of <em>m</em>-cresol with _-methylstyrene. Analyses of the results revealed that temperature, molar ratio and amount of catalyst were the main effective variables. The products were characterized by FT-IR, UV-visible and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The adequacy of the suggested model was checked up. The experimental yields exhibited good agreement with the predicted yields designed by the mathematical model. Hence, (2-phenylpropan-2-yl) <em>m</em>-cresol has the potential to be used as an industrially important compound in various applications.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(3)</strong>, 195-202, 2019</p> S Sultana, ASMS Arefin, M Shahruzzaman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine fractions of Barapukuria coal in Bangladesh <p>The existence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine coal fractions have been determined in order to evaluate their potential carcinogenicity to human beings. Thirteen PAHs of fine coal fractions (<em>n </em>= 9) from Barapukuria coal field, situated at the northwestern part of Bangladesh were analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC−MS) method in order to examine their distributions and toxicity in the environment. Relative abundances of fluoranthene (Flu), pyrene (Pyr), benzo [<em>b,j,k</em>] fluoranthene (Bflas), benzo [<em>e</em>] pyrene (BeP) and benzo [<em>a</em>] pyrene (BaP) were found to be high, followed by phenanthrene (Phe), indeno [1,2,3-<em>cd</em>] pyrene (InP), benzo [<em>g,h,i</em>] perylene (BghiP) and coronene (Cor). The average loads of carcinogenic PAHs in the fine coal fractions decreased in the order: Bflas &gt; BeP &gt; BaP &gt; BghiP &gt; InP &gt; Cor. The PAHs ratios of BeP/(BeP + BaP) ranging from 0.61 to 0.85 (average 0.74), reflected the decay of BaP due to ageing in prolonged exposure to the solar radiation. High abundance of land plant markers retene (Ret) and Phe and BaP/BghiP ratio (~0.10 to 6.16, average 1.89) values indicate that organic matters in the studied samples were derived from typical biological sources. Moreover, the existence of more middle- and higher molecular weight (MMW and HMW) PAHs over lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs in most samples implied the association of high toxicity with negative impacts on human health. The health risk assessment factors (BaPeq) ranging from 0.55 ng g–1 to 6.51 ng g<sup>–</sup><sup>1</sup> indicates moderate to high health risk related to carcinogenic PAHs in the surrounding atmosphere. The estimated incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values for adults (9.96 × 10<sup>−</sup><sup>5</sup> to 1.27 × 10<sup>−</sup><sup>4</sup>) and children (5.56 × 10<sup>−</sup><sup>6</sup> to 1.12 × 10<sup>−</sup><sup>6</sup>) were found to be higher than or equal to the range of 1.0 × 10<sup>−</sup><sup>6</sup> to 1.0 × 10<sup>−</sup><sup>4</sup>.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(3)</strong>, 203-214, 2019</p> HMZ Hossain, QH Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Chemometrics assisted spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and caffeine in pharmaceutical formulations <p>In this study, two chemometric techniques, partial least-square regression (PLSR) and artificial neural network (ANN) were developed and compared for the simultaneous assay of paracetamol (PCT) and caffeine (CAF) in pharmaceutical formulations by using spectrophotometric data. Six different concentrations of paracetamol and caffeine were considered to make mixture solutions of standard samples by using orthogonal experimental design (OED). UV spectra of these mixtures were recorded in the wavelength range of 205-300 nm versus a solvent blank and digitized absorbance was sampled at 1 nm intervals. Drug concentrations and instrumental spectra of 36 mixture solutions were used for model development and validation and finally 6 commercially available tablets were used to test the developed models. ANN shows better prediction efficiencies than that of PLSR with R2 value 99.28% for prediction and 99.13% for validation set. These two models were successfully applied to commercial pharmaceutical formulations, and it is found by ANN that the drugs contain 75 to 86% of paracetamol and 77 to 92% of caffeine of their label claim. Either of the proposed methods is simple and rapid and can be easily used in the quality assessment of drugs as an alternative analytical method.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(3)</strong>, 215-222, 2019</p> MN Uddin, A Mondol, MM Karim, RA Jahan, AA Rana ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis of Bis (n-salicylidene-n-phenyl aminato) Palladium (II) complex to prepare a number of biphenyl compounds <p>The non-toxic, stable, Schiff base complex of Na<sub>2</sub>PdCl<sub>4</sub> and N-salicylidene-N-phenyl amine in methanol catalyze the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction to synthesize coupling products (<strong>Scheme-1</strong>) in good to excellent yields with high purity under mild conditions.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/admin/212222.jpg" width="676" height="233"></p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(3)</strong>, 223-230, 2019</p> Md A Hashem, SK Tuli, TB Mahmud ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Drug resistance and plasmid profile of bacterial isolates from automated teller machine keypads in Benin city <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the drug resistance and plasmid profile of bacterial isolates from automated teller machine (ATM) keypads in Benin City, Nigeria. Samples were collected from the keypads of ATMs situated in banking premises and open access areas using stratified random sampling method at 5 different locations. Isolated bacteria were characterized by extensive phenotypic and biochemical identification procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and plasmid profile of the isolates were carried out using standard methods. The bacteria isolated were: <em>Klebsiella </em>sp<em>., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacteria </em>sp<em>., Staphylococcus epidermidis </em>and <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em>. Each isolate exhibited marked resistance to the antibiotics, with multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index &gt; 0.2. <em>Escherichia coli </em>showed the highest resistance (MAR index, 1) while <em>Micrococcus luteus </em>exhibited the least resistance (MAR index, 0.5) to the antibiotics used. Plasmid profile of the isolates revealed the presence of plasmids in the isolates, with a reduction in antibiotic resistance after plasmid curing in some isolates. This indicated plasmid-mediated resistance among majority of the isolates. From the results obtained, it is pertinent therefore, to adopt proper measures aimed at preventing outbreak of diseases associated with these multi-drug resistant bacteria isolated from ATM keypads.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(3)</strong>, 231-240, 2019</p> FI Akinnibosun, JA Adetitun ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Antifungal activity of Rauwolfia serpentina root extract against Neurospora crassa and genetic study of induced mutants <p><em>Rauwolfia serpentina </em>(<em>R. serpentina</em>) root extract was used to study antifungal activity against <em>Neurospora crassa </em>(Ema) as well as mutation, mating type, segregation of the fungus. It was found that more concentration of root extract was used in VM media, higher antifungal activity was observed. After mutation in <em>N. crassa </em>conidia with root extract of <em>R. serpentina</em>, 5 groups of morphological mutants <em>viz. albino </em>(<em>al </em>98), <em>vigorous </em>(<em>vg </em>77), <em>fluffy </em>(<em>fl </em>139), <em>conidial band </em>(<em> </em>221) and <em>cauliflower </em>(<em>clf </em>155) were obtained. From genetic study, it was found that all the mutants formed perithecia crossing with EmA which confirmed that mating type of all the mutants is ‘a’ and is not changed due to mutation. Besides, segregation ratio between mutant and wild isolates was about 1:1 which confirmed that mutation takes place in the nuclear gene, not cytoplasmic.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(3)</strong>, 241-246, 2019</p> AL Ray ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Fabrication and characterization of cane fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites <p>Cane fiber of the generas <em>Acoruscalamus, Daemonorops Draco, Daemonoropsmollis </em>climbing palms of tropical Asia, belonging to the family palmae (palm family) and unsaturated polyester resin were used for the preparation of composites. Cane fiber was modified with 5%, 10%, 15% NaOH solution. Various physical and mechanical properties of the composite for different orientations of fiber were measured. The physical properties i.e. water absorption of treated fiber reinforced composites is lower. But the moisture content of cane fiber decreases with higher concentration of alkali solution used for treatment. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) is higher for treated fiber reinforced composites than the raw fiber reinforced composites for any types of orientations of fibers and the tensile strain of treated fiber reinforced composites is lower than the raw fiber reinforced composites. The UTS value for treated cane fiber composites increases with increasing weight percentage of fiber than the raw fiber reinforced composite.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(3)</strong>, 247-256, 2019</p> MHA Begum, NI Tanvir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Antifungal efficacy of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) and mahagony fruit bark (Swietenia mahagoni) extracts on leather shoes <p>The natural fungicide has been successfully extracted from neem (<em>Azadirachta indica</em>) leaves and mahagony (<em>Swietenia Mahagoni</em>) fruit bark by a solvent extraction method. The antifungal efficacy was evaluated by the application of extract to the fungal-killing on cultured-fungus in Petri-plate and shoes. The fungus was isolated from the shoe and cultured in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) plate of 100 mm size petri dish. Different dosing of neem and mahagony extract was applied on the fungus culture and measured the area of fungus killing as an antifungal efficacy of the extracts by “Leaf Area Counter” software. The maximum fungus killing efficacy was optimized. The optimum dosing of neem leaves and mahagony bark extracts were found 0.6 gm/5ml and 0.8 gm/5ml, respectively. After that, the optimum doses of natural fungicide were mixed with commercial shoe shiner and cultured the fungus in SDA plate with and without fungicides. Fungicides containing shoe shiner was an inhibitor to grow the fungus, whereas fungus was grown in fungicides-free shoe shiner within three days. We observed the fungicides-containing shoe-shiner treated dish for a period of one month and found that there was no fungus growth at all. The present findings indicated the possible use of neem and mahagony fruits-bark extract as a natural antifungal agent against post-harvest fungal infestation of shoe commodities and prevented the fungus contamination.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(3)</strong>, 257-262, 2019</p> Md Abdulla Al Mamun, R Hasan, Md R Ahmed, AC Paul, RK Raha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Irrigation water quality of surface and ground water used for Boro rice cultivation in Khulna district in Bangladesh <p>Bangladesh is a land of mighty rivers and innumerable tributaries, heavy rainfall and recurring floods. Nearly 75 percent of the country’s population depends either directly or indirectly on agriculture. This study deals with the quality of surface and ground water used in rice cultivation of Khulna district, which is located in the south-western part of Bangladesh. This study was carried out to characterize the surface and ground water in terms of different dissolved elements in relation to the suitability of the water for irrigation purposes in Khulna. To analyze the water quality for irrigation of <em>Boro </em>rice, the water samples both surface and ground water were collected from different Upazillas. A reconnaissance survey was conducted in different areas of sampling sites. Collected samples were immediately analyzed for finding important chemical parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC),Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP),Sodium to Calcium Activity Ratio (SCAR), Sodium Ratio (SR), Residual Sodium Bi-carbonate (RSBC), Kelly’s Ratio (KR), Permeability Index (PI) and Total Hardness (HT). From the analysis, it was observed the ionic concentration and other chemical parameters varied in different water sources of the area. SAR, SSP, SCAR and KR are high in all sources where surface water contained most but SR, MAR, HT and Permeability were in favorable concentration in both sources in Khulna District. Therefore, the sodicity and alkalinity hazards risk have been found to both of the water sources to use in irrigation purposes.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(3)</strong>, 263-274, 2019</p> MT Sultan, SM Billah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Stigmasterol, rengyolone, 2-phenylethyl β-D-glucopyranoside and n-tetradecyl-β-D-glucopyranoside from the flowers of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn <p>A phytochemical investigation was conducted on the flowers of <em>Nyctanthesarbor-tristis </em>Linn. For isolation of compounds, the dried flower’s powder was successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts were fractionated using different chromatographic techniques and four compounds were isolated. Stigmasterol (1) from n-hexane, rengyolone (2) from dichloromethane and two other compounds namely, 2-phenylethyl β-D-glucopyranoside (3) and n-tetradecyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) from ethyl acetate extract, were isolated. These compounds (1-4) were characterized on the basis of IR, <sup>1</sup>H NMR, <sup>13</sup>C NMR, DEPT-135 NMR. Compounds 1 and 3 were isolated for the first time from this plant while compound 4 has been isolated and completely characterized from this plant as well as from the natural sources.</p> <p><em>Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res.</em><strong>54(3)</strong>, 275-282, 2019</p> MM Haque, N Sultana, SMT Abedin, SE Kabir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000