Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences <p>Published by the University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Full text articles available.</p> en-US (M. Atiar Rahman PhD) (Md Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Mon, 10 Jun 2024 08:41:14 +0000 OJS 60 Soil Organic Carbon Estimation Through Participatory Approach in a Selective Village Common Forests in Chittagong Hill Tracts <p>Abstract not available</p> <p><em>The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci. 9(1&amp;2):167-178,2019</em></p> <p> </p> Md. Danesh Miah, Md. Robiul Hasan Copyright (c) 2019 Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and Characterization of Two Streptomyces Spp. from Saw Dust for Their Cellulase Production and Cellulolytic Activity <p>Two highly cellulolytic actinomycetes, namely SD1 and SD2, were locally isolated from saw dust and provisionally identified as <em>Streptomyces cirratus</em> (SD1) and <em>Streptomyces cellulosae</em> (SD2) respectively. These isolates were capable of producing cellulolytic enzymes during growth on different cellulosic substrates. They were grown under different conditions and showed that carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was the best cellulosic substrate for inducing the synthesis of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes. In addition, both the isolates showed goodgrowth at different pHs, temperature, period, carbon and nitrogen sources when grown in liquid Winstead's media having 1.2% CMC as cellulosic substrate. However, the optimum growth was at pH 6.5-8.5, temperature 30-40°C and 8-14 days of incubation period using CMC as carbon source. The cellulose hydrolysis by both the isolates was also optimum under these conditions with the maximum level of reducing sugar produced due to carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity of SD1 and SD2 391.76 U/mL and 328.09 U/mL, respectively. The effects of various metal ions (Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>+</sup>, Mg<sup>+</sup>, Ag<sup>+</sup>, Hg<sup>2+</sup>, Mn <sup>2+</sup>, Li<sup>+</sup> andFe<sup>3+</sup>) on the two cellulases were also investigated and some metal ions were found to inhibitcellulase reversibly.<em> </em></p> <p><em>The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci. 9(1&amp;2):01-18,2019</em></p> Faozia Faleha Sadida, M A Hakim Copyright (c) 2019 Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Biogas Digestate from Cowdung and Poultry Manure on Growth and Yield of Spinach (SpinaceaoleraceaL.) <p>A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of biogas digestate from cowdung and poultry manure,and raw cow dung and poultry manure on the growth and yield of spinach (<em>Spinacea oleracea</em> L.)at glass house of the Department of Soil Science,University of Chittagong, Bangladesh. Treatments with three replications were as follows:T<sub>1</sub>(control),T<sub>2</sub>(100%N of recommended dose@90 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> from urea),T<sub>3</sub>(100% N from cow dung digestate),T<sub>4</sub>(100% N from poultry manure digestate),T<sub>5</sub>(100% N from raw cow dung),T<sub>6</sub> (100% N from raw poultry manure),T<sub>7</sub>(50% N from urea+ 50%N from cow dung digestate), T<sub>8</sub>(50% N from urea+ 50% N from poultry manure digestate)T<sub>9</sub>(50% N from urea+ 50% N from raw cow dung) and T<sub>10</sub>(50% N from urea+ 50% N from raw poultry manure).Pots were arranged in a randomized block design. Results showed that there were significant variations among the treatments in number of leaves in each plant,plant height, and fresh and dry weight of shoot and root. Treatments T<sub>7</sub> and T<sub>8</sub> had significantly increased number of leaves and plant height at 15,25 and 40 DAS. Treatment T<sub>7</sub> showed the best performance compared to other treatments in producing fresh and dry weight of shoot and root biomass of spinach.</p> <p><em>The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci. 9(1&amp;2):19-28,2019</em></p> T Shormin, M G Kibria Copyright (c) 2019 Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PCR Based Detection and Molecular Typing of Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolated from Patients in Chittagong,Bangladesh <p>The uropathogenic<em>Escherichia coli</em> (UPEC)are causative agents of urinary tract infection (UTI) throughout the world. This study aimed at analyzing the prevalence of UTI among different age and gender in Chittagong, the second most popular city of Bangladesh. We performed a PCR based UPEC detection method by using 16S rRNA and phylotyping by multiplex PCR.We found <em>E.coli</em> in 83.43% of UTI samples in this study. Among these, 42% of UPEC belongs to B2 phylogroup along with A,B1,C,D,E and F.Moreover, there was a significant association of UPEC infection with age and gender. To be more specific, 45.03% of males and 54.97% of females UTI patients were infected with UPEC.Therefore,we believe that this study would play a crucial role in detecting and managing UPEC induced UTI by understanding the prevalence of UPEC and their phylotype in the Chittagong region of Bangladesh.</p> <p><em>The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci. 9(1&amp;2):29-38, 2019</em></p> Laila Khaleda, Bashudev Rudra, Inzamamul Ismail Shawon, Md Jibran Alam, Mohammad Al-Forkan Copyright (c) 2019 Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Genotyping of Virulence Factors of Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli from Chittagong, Bangladesh <p>Uropathogenic<em>Escherichia coli</em> are the common cause of Urinary Tract Infection affecting 150 million people each year worldwide. In this study,we investigated the prevalence of UPEC genetic regions coding for various virulence factors.The targeted genetic determinants were those coding for pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap),hemolysin (hly),cytotoxic necrotizing factor (cnf) and aerobactin (aer). We collected 180 urine samples ofUTI patients from the Chittagong region of Bangladesh and isolated UPEC.Among the studied strains the prevalence of pap,hly, cnfand aer genes were 21,25.2,24.3 and 7.0%respectively.This rapid assessment of the bacterial pathogenicity may contribute to a better medical approach for the patients with urinary tract infections.</p> <p><em>The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci. 9(1&amp;2):39-48,2019</em></p> Laila Khaleda, Bashudev Rudra, Inzamamul Ismail Shawon, Md. Jibran Alam, Amit Datta , Mohammad Al-Forkan Copyright (c) 2019 Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical Investigation and Neuropharmacological Activity of Stem Extracts of Gynocardia Odorata R.Br. <p>From the stem part of <em>Gynocardiaodorata</em> R.Br. the presence of steroids,alkaloids,saponins, tannins,flavonoids etc. has been indicated through phytochemical screening.The crude extract was prepared with absolute methanol and later on pet ether, chloroform, n-hexane and carbon tetrachloride were used as solvents to prepare soluble fractions. Neuropharmacological effect was investigated by open field,hole cross,hole board and elevated plus maze test forscreening CNS depressant and anxiogenic effect on Swiss albino mice and compared with Diazepam as a reference standard. The hole board method showed dose-dependent significant decrease in the number of head dipping (P&lt;0.001).Similarly, the open field,hole cross and elevated plus maze methods also showed dose-dependent anxiogenic effects which were statistically significant(p &lt;0.05).In conclusion,the present data provide evidence for an important role of extracts of <em>G. odorata</em> stem in the CNS depression process.<em> </em></p> <p><em>The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci. 9(1&amp;2):49-56,2019</em></p> Nawreen Monir Proma, Jannatul Naima, Mohammad Rashedul Islam, Syeda Rubaiya Afrin , Mohammed Kamrul Hossain Copyright (c) 2019 Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Analgesic, Antidiarrheal and CNS Depressant Activity of Seed Extracts of Trigonella foenum graecum L. <p>The methanolic extract of <em>Trigonella foenum graecum</em> L. showed significant peripheral analgesic activity at a dose of 400 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight with percentage of inhibition of acetic acid induced writhing 68.10%(P&lt;0.001) and 52.80%(P&lt;0.001), respectively compared to the standard diclofenac (62.50%)(P&lt;0.001) group.The crude methanolic extract also showed significant antidiarrheal activity by castor oil induced diarrhea test with percentage of inhibition of defecation 45.16%(400mg/kg dose,p&lt;0.001) and 38.71%(200mg/mg dose,p&lt;0.001) compared to the standard loperamide (61.29%).In case of CNS depressant activity by phenobarbitone induced sleeping time test,the crude methanolic extract significantly reduced sleep latency by 84.16% and increased the duration of sleep by 39.03% and 36.47% compared to the standard diazepam (89% and 44.58%, respectively). In light of available literature,these findings provided some scientific justification for significant folkloric use of the seeds of the plant for the treatment of algesia, CNS depression and diarrhea.</p> <p><em>The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci. 9(1&amp;2):57-62,2019</em></p> Jannatul Naima, Nawreen Monir Proma, Mohammed Rashedul Islam, Md Rajib Hossain, Salma Sultana Rashma, Mohammed Kamrul Hossain Copyright (c) 2019 Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Homestead Agricultural Activities for Socioeconomic Development of Women: A Case Study on 'Kushumpura' union Under Patiya Upazila of Chittagong, Bangladesh. <p>Homestead Agricultural Activities(HAA)refers to the works done by the women of the households to participate in agriculture in their closest homestead. The main purpose of the study was to determine the extent of participation of rural women on traditional system of homestead agriculture and to evaluate its role on socioeconomic development in rural area of Bangladesh. Data have been collected from both primary and secondary sources.Primary data were collected from the field survey, questionnaire survey,expert opinion,and FGD survey conducted from August 2017 to January 2018.The collected data computed,tabulated, and analyzed in accordance to the objectives of the study. The independent variables were measured by employing prevailing standard methods. Pearson's correlation coefficient(r) was used in order to test the null hypothesis. The study revealed that women were used to engage at medium level in HAA that may help to improve their socio-economic development. However, women were comparatively less involved in various rural social program and political activities, restricting expected women empowerment. Furthermore,there was no relationship between age and education of women in HAA,but a positive relationship is found between farm size, family income and training on HAA.To this end, a recommendation list has been drawn for sustainable management of HAA by proper training,funding, promoting small enterprises and encouragement to women<strong>.</strong><strong> </strong></p> <p><em>The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci. 9(1&amp;2):63-80,2019</em></p> Muhammad Muhibbullah Copyright (c) 2019 Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Biogas Plant Residues on Nutrient Uptake by Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) <p>A pot experiment was conducted in the research field of the Department of Soil Science, University of Chittagong to study the effect of biogas plant residues (BPR)and NPK fertilizers on nutrient uptake by amaranth (<em>Amaranthus tricolor</em> L.). Six treatments having three replications were as follows:T1=Control (No BPR+No inorganic fertilizers),T2= N<sub>156</sub>P<sub>36</sub> K<sub>80</sub> kg ha<sup>-1</sup> from inorganic fertilizer (recommended dose),T3-BPR 20 tha<sup>-1</sup>test from inorganic NPK fertilizer,T4=BPR 15 t ha<sup>-1</sup>+ rest from inorganic NPK fertilizer, T5-BPR 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>+ rest from inorganic NPK fertilizer,T6-BPR 5t ha<sup>-1</sup>+ rest from inorganic NPK fertilizer.The results showed that application of biogas plant residues and inorganic NPK fertilizers significantly increased nutrient uptake byamaranth compared to control. The values of uptake of N, P, K,Ca, Mg, and Na were 4.61-38.85,0.55 -3.36, 3.56-45.76,0.93 -6.09,1.25-8.56 and 0.17-0.99 mg plant<sup>-1</sup>in shoot and 1.54-12.51, 0.31-1.36,1.92-17.34,0.16- 0.95 and 0.22-1.33 and 0.05-0.85 mg plant<sup>-1</sup> in root, respectively. Nutrient uptake was the lowest in control,higher in the treatment of chemical fertilizer alone and the highest in the treatments of biogas plant residues in combination with chemical fertilizers except Ca uptake in shoot. Overall, application of biogas plantresidues at the rate of 5 ton ha<sup>-1</sup> along with calculated amount of NPK fertilizer (T6) showed the best results.</p> <p><em>The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci. 9(1&amp;2):81-88,2019</em></p> F. J. Chowdhury, M. G. Kibria, M. Alamgir, M. Islam Copyright (c) 2019 Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Soil Fertility Status of Some Orchards in The Chittagong Hill Tracts <p>Properties of some soils of banana, jackfruit and pineapple orchards of different locations in the Chittagong Hill Tracts were studied. Soil samples were analyzed for particle size distribution,texture,pH,organic matter,total nitrogen, available P and 1N NH<sub>4</sub>OAc extractable K<sup>+</sup>,Ca<sup>2+</sup>and Mg<sup>2+</sup>. Particle size distributions were 76-87% sand,2-12% silt and 10-15% clay. The textural classes of the soils varied from loamy sand to sandy loam.Soil pH,organic matter,total N and available P varied from 4.62 to 5.47,1.66 to 2.58%,0.11 to 0.18%,and 0.48 to 5.56 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>,respectively. These properties varied significantly within the sites in all types of orchard except total N in pineapple orchard. 1N NH<sub>4</sub>OAc extractable K<sup>+</sup>,Ca<sup>2+</sup> and Mg<sup>2+</sup> ranged from 0.20 to 0.69 cmol kg<sup>-1</sup>,2.00 to 3.18 cmol kg<sup>-1</sup> and 0.72 to 1.61 cmol kg<sup>-1</sup>,respectively. A significant variation in exchangeable K<sup>+</sup>,Ca<sup>2+</sup> and Mg<sup>2+</sup>was observed among the sitesin all types of orchard.</p> <p><em>The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci. 9(1&amp;2):89-98,2019</em></p> M.J. Ahammad, M.G. Kibria, K.T. Osman , M. Alamgir Copyright (c) 2019 Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Hill Cutting and Landslide Vulnerability: An Environmental Impact Assessment Approach on Bandarban Town, Bangladesh <p>Landslides are a common hazard in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) area in Bangladesh. The communities who are usually live on hill slopes in CHT repeatedly experience landslide hazards during the rainy season with casualties,economic losses and property damages.The present study was conducted in 4 wards of Bandarban municipality to assess the landslide vulnerability of existing urban hills in perspective of hill cutting. An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was conducted to know the impacts of landslides on local environment. Both the primary and secondary sources of data have beenincorporated to achieve the findings of the study.Primary data were collected through direct field observation survey, questionnaire survey, focus group discussion (FGD) and experts' opinion survey. The questionnaire survey was conducted on 280 respondents selected randomly from the study area. Secondary data were collected from various official records,reports of various government and non-government organization,researcher articles and internet sources. The present study indicated that Kalaghata (Ward No-3) and BandarbanSadar (Ward No-4) are highly vulnerable landslide prone areas in Bandarban municipality.Rapid urbanization has been driven to accelerate hill-cutting activities in the study area. Survey study also indicated that political leaders and influential businesspersons are highly responsible for illegal hill cutting for their own benefits that isacting as triggering factors along with torrential rainfall.The summarized Environmental Impact Values (EIVs) through EIA regarding urban environmental parameters are calculated as negative(-Ve) all specific area (ie. There are no positive impacts of hill cutting activities on local urbanenvironment in the study area).The summarized EIVs for urban environmental parameters are observed negatively highest at Kalaghata (-145)followed by Balaghata (-107), Bandarbansadar(-105) and Islampur(-92) ward in the study area.</p> <p><em>The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci. 9(1&amp;2):99-118,2019</em></p> Rony Barua, Muhammad Muhibbullah, Tyem Ebna Alam Copyright (c) 2019 Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Two New Records of the Family Orchidaceae from Bangladesh <p>A critical examination and identification of the specimens of the family Orchidaceae collected from the south-eastern part of Bangladesh resulted in to new records,<em>viz</em>. <em>Aeridesroseum</em>Loddiges. ex. Lindl. and <em>Bulbophyllumcylindraceum</em> Wall. ex. Lindl.for Bangladesh. In the present communication, detailed descriptions with photographs, flowering time,ecology, and geographical distribution of the species have been provided.</p> <p><em>The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci. 9(1&amp;2):119-124,2019</em></p> <p> </p> Mohammed Kamrul Huda , Mohammed Mozammel Hoque , Md Owahidul Alam Copyright (c) 2019 Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Adjustments and Depression of Adolescents <p>The purpose of the present study was to explore whether there is any relation between adolescent adjustment and depression of students in relation to types of institution, types of medium and family structure. This study was conducted on 160 respondents of age 10-19 years, selected purposively from different areas of Chittagong district. The Bangla version of adolescent adjustment scale (Sarkar &amp; Khanam,2008) and Depression scale (Rahman &amp; Uddin,2005) were used to measure adjustment and depression of adolescents. The findings of the present study showed that mean score of adolescent's personal, social adjustment and depression was 63.31, 44.55 and 81.24, respectively. Mean of college students was more than school students, mean score of Bangla medium students was more than English medium students, and mean score of joint family adolescent was more than nuclear family students. In addition, there was significant interaction effect between types of medium and family structure, among types of institution, types of medium and types of family structure on personal adjustment. Similar significant interaction effect on depression was also observed among the responders. Detailed statistical analyses furthermore showed significant positive correlation between personal and social adjustment, significant negative correlation between personal adjustment and depression, social adjustment and depression. The results have been constructed in the light of past studies and the findings of the present study have both theoretical and practical implications.</p> <p><em>The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci. 9(1&amp;2):125-140,2019</em></p> Biplob Kumar Dey, Mst. Sabiha Sultana Copyright (c) 2019 Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Troublesome Issues in Shrimp Farming Sector of Greater Khulna Region, Bangladesh <p>The objective of this research was to look for the existent troublesome issues in shrimp farming sector in Khulna, Bagerhat and Sathkhira district of Bangladesh. A total of ninety shrimp farms were visited to collect primary data through questionnaire interview from August-December, 2017. The result showed that, at least fourteen major problems were existing in this sector at present which must be addressed for improving quality shrimp production. Among the major problems identified, disease was the main restraining factor for the development of shrimp farms. Our observations clearly indicated that about 80%, 90% and 80% farms of Khulna, Satkhira and Bagerhat district, respectively suffered from several viral diseases in which WSSV was the most prominent one. Neither of the farmers were found applying appropriate technique to diagnose actual diseases nor even testing any water quality parameter. The farmers were also lacking good quality post larvae, feed, technical knowledge and government patronization. The remaining problems were land ownership and conflict, leasing duration matter, poor economic condition, high credit loan, poor transportation facilities, insufficient electricity supply, natural calamities, poor post- harvest handling facilities, low product price, and inconsistency in market channel were also existed in this region.<em> </em></p> <p><em>The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci. 9(1&amp;2):141-152,2019</em></p> Manash Kabiraj, Shety Khandoker, Ghausiatur Reza Banu, Shamima Sultana Copyright (c) 2019 Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Loneliness and Aggression of the Adolescents in Chittagong <p>Adolescence is a period of stress and storm in which adolescents have to adjust with different physical, social, and psychological changes. If any adolescent fails to cope with these changes, then they may undergo various psychological challenges such as loneliness, aggression, emotional instability, etc. The present study aimed to know the nature of loneliness and aggression among adolescents as a function of adolescents developmental stages, medium of institution, and gender.120 participants were selected purposively in the age range 10-21 years (M=15.5±3.61). The present study showed that early adolescents scored more loneliness than the middle and late adolescents (F (2,108) =154.83, p&lt;.001) and male adolescents scored more than the female adolescents (F (1,108) =44.23, p&lt;.001). There was significant interaction effect among the stages of adolescents, medium of institution and gender (F (2,108) =6.85, p&lt;.002) from loneliness viewpoint. Early adolescents showed more aggression than the middle and late adolescents (F (2, 108) = 336.45, p&lt;.001). English medium students showed more aggression than the Bangla medium students (F (1,108) =55.53, p&lt;.001). Male adolescents were more aggressive than female adolescents (7(1, 108) = 52.83, p&lt;.001). A significant interaction effect on aggression was found between stages of adolescent and gender (F (2,103)-3.69, p&lt;.03), and medium of institution and gender (F(2, 108)=6.85,p&lt;.001). Finally, our results showed a significant positive correlation (r=,80, p&lt;.01) between loneliness and aggression of adolescents.</p> <p><em>The Chittagong Univ. J. B. Sci. 9(1&amp;2):153-166,2019</em></p> Biplob Kumar Dey Copyright (c) 2019 Chittagong University Journal of Biological Sciences Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000