IUBAT Review https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR <p>Published by <a href="https://iubat.edu/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">International University of Business, Agriculture and Technology (IUBAT)</a><strong>. </strong>Full-text articles available.</p> <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />Articles in the International University of Business, Agriculture and Technology are licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a> (CC BY-NC 4.0). This license permits <strong>Share</strong>— copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, <strong>adapt</strong> — remix, transform, and build upon the material as long as it is not for commercial purposes.</p> en-US ijournal@iubat.edu (Prof. Dr Hamida Akhtar Begum) banglajol.info@gmail.com (Md. Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Unveiling the Wrath of Erosion: Assessing the Impacts of Soil Erosion on the Coastal Region of Bangladesh https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71303 <p>Study on soil erosion in the coastal region of Bangladesh is crucial due to its severe environmental and socio-economic impacts. Understanding erosion patterns, identifying vulnerable areas, and developing effective conservation strategies are essential to safeguard agricultural productivity, preserve coastal ecosystems, and protect the livelihoods of coastal communities. This study focuses on soil erosion in the low-lying, flood-prone coastal regions of Bangladesh. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) technique was used to calculate soil erosion rates. The southern section of the study area, characterized by high rainfall erosivity (R) and soil erodibility (K), exhibited the highest erosion rates at 1446 t/ha/year. The region experiences significantly higher rainfall erosivity than other parts of the world. Cox’s Bazar, Chittagong, Feni, and Patuakhali receive over 3000 mm/yr of precipitation, while Teknaf and Hatiya surpass 4000 mm/yr. The vulnerability of the soft, sand-rich topsoil to water-driven gully and rill erosion contributes to the high erodibility factor. Conversely, the northwest and low-lying marshy areas exhibit low erosion rates due to the flat terrain and deposition of eroded soil mass from the hinterland. The hilly areas of Chittagong, Teknaf, and Cox’s Bazar experience above-average erosion rates. Effective soil conservation and management strategies are essential for reducing soil erosion in Bangladesh’s coastal regions, considering local environmental conditions such as precipitation and soil type. The findings of this research provide valuable insights for future studies and policies on soil erosion management in the coastal districts of Bangladesh. By guiding efficient conservation efforts, this information can help mitigate the adverse impacts of soil erosion on the environment and economy.</p> <p>IUBAT Review, 6(2): 1-24</p> Mahfuzur Rahman, Md Khaled Hasan Rafi , Nishat Tasmim , Md Monirul Islam , Matiur Rahman Raju , Mohammad Rezaul Karim Copyright (c) 2023 Mahfuzur Rahman, Md Khaled Hasan Rafi , Nishat Tasmim , Md Monirul Islam , Matiur Rahman Raju , Mohammad Rezaul Karim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71303 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of the Effects of Saltwater on the Formation, Curing and Strength of Concrete https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71307 <p>Concrete is extensively used in all construction works such as buildings, bridges, roads and dams worldwide. It is made by simply combining cement, aggregate, sand and water in the appropriate proportion. This paper explores the investigational study on the outcome of using saltwater in coastal regions for blending and curing concrete since palatable water is a deficient asset on the earth. As most of the ions in seawater comprise Na, Mg, Cl<sup>-</sup> and SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>, this research aimed to observe how concrete behaves after the addition of NaCl and MgSO<sub>4</sub> salt separately for mixing concrete and curing at different concentrations. Concrete cylinders were cured using fresh water as well as saltwater separately. A total specimen of 42 cylinders was cast with 100%, 75% and 50% ion concentrations of NaCl, MgSO<sub>4</sub> and freshwater specimens prepared for the reference concrete, which were exhibited for 7 days and 28 days of curing. A comparatively higher compressive strength was found for a 50% salt concentration of MgSO<sub>4</sub> and for 75% salt concentration of NaCl. The comparison of compressive strength using NaCl and MgSO4 samples between this research and previous researches was derived for 7 days and 28 days. A correlation between the compressive strength and ion concentrations of NaCl and MgSO<sub>4</sub> for 28 days was derived by performing linear regression analysis. The relations obtained by this analysis can be utilized for further prediction of compressive strength at any other ion concentrations of these salts.</p> <p>IUBAT Review, 6(2): 25-40</p> Anisuzzaman Khan , Syeda Rezwana Jannat, Md Abdul Basit, Md Monirul Islam Copyright (c) 2023 Anisuzzaman Khan , Syeda Rezwana Jannat, Md Abdul Basit, Md. Monirul Islam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71307 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Water Dispersible Colloidal Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesis for Agarwood Inoculation: A Review https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71308 <p>Agarwood is one of the most expensive natural products, produced from Aquilaria Spp. These plants produce agar resin through mechanical, biological, or chemical stress. Besides these, the particles having size in the range of 1-100 nm, are known as nanoparticles, have ultra-high surface area and surface plasmon resonance, can create stress on living plants when incorporated into the plant body. Adopting this concept, we intend to produce agarwood by inoculating water-dispersible metal/metal oxide nanoparticles. Therefore, we aim to synthesize water-dispersible four noble metals (Au, Ag, Pt, Pd) and five metal oxides (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>, TiO<sub>2</sub>, SnO<sub>2</sub>, MnO<sub>2</sub>, CuO) nanoparticles in aqueous colloidal states for application in biotechnology, considering the facile synthetic routes, readily available and inexpensive precursors, and stability of the products under normal laboratory conditions for an extended period, utilizing the synthesis methods of precipitation of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles from an aqueous solution, microwave and ultrasound-assisted rapid heating methods, sol-gel methods, and surfactant-assisted microemulsion methods. We believe that by applying any of these methods, water-dispersible, long-lasting colloidal metal/metal oxide nanoparticles can be synthesized using a simple laboratory setup, without the need for sophisticated tools or instruments.</p> <p>IUBAT Review, 6(2): 41-76</p> Md Jahidul Islam , Md Kawsar Uddin , Mohammad Jakir Hossain Copyright (c) 2023 Md Jahidul Islam , Md Kawsar Uddin , Mohammad Jakir Hossain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71308 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study on Wear Properties of Highly Conductive Materials Commercially Pure Al and Cu https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71309 <p>A comparative study has been carried out on the wear behavior of commercially pure aluminium and copper of highly used conductive materials under dry sliding environment. Wear tests have been conducted using a standard pin-on-disk apparatus where Al and Cu are treated as pin samples and stainless steel as disc. An applied load of 10N is used for both specimens where the calculated contact stress is active at 0.51 MPa. Furthermore, different loads ranging from 5 to 30 N are used to investigate the other tests. The sliding velocity is considered 0.64 m/s and the sliding distance varies between 150m-3500m. The worn surfaces of the samples before and after wear are analyzed using both optical and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the wear rate of Al is three and a half times higher by weight and eleven and a half times higher by volume than that of Cu due to its inferior physical and mechanical properties. In addition the coefficient of friction of Al is 1.2 times higher than that of Cu. The worn surfaces under dry sliding condition, Al exhibits higher abrasive wear along with plastic deformation due to thermal softening as Cu has better strength compared to Al. Nevertheless, considering the economic factors and its weight, Al offers better results.</p> <p>IUBAT Review, 6(2): 77-91</p> Mohammad Salim Kaiser Copyright (c) 2023 Mohammad Salim Kaiser https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71309 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Extra-linguistic Factors Affecting Learner's English Speaking at the Tertiary Level in Bangladesh https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71310 <p>This study investigates the primary speaking difficulties encountered by tertiary-level English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners in Bangladesh and explores the influence of extra-linguistic factors on their English-speaking abilities. The research involves 77 participants from six Bangladeshi universities who have completed at least one English-speaking course. Utilizing a Likert-scale questionnaire encompassing 13 closed-ended questions, the study employs a quantitative approach. The findings reveal that speaking challenges are prevalent among EFL learners, with major difficulties including lack of conceptual knowledge, fluency, vocabulary, confidence, and grammar. Additionally, cultural, psychological, educational, and social factors significantly influence speaking proficiency. The cultural influences encompass pronunciation, communication styles, and idiom comprehension—where psychological factors like confidence and fear of making mistakes play a vital role. Educational factors, including classroom environments and feedback mechanisms, play a vital role. Engagement with English media and real-life English interactions also affect speaking skills. The study suggests cultural sensitivity, psychological support, improved learning environments, feedback mechanisms, media engagement, and increased real-world contacts to boost speaking proficiency in EFL learners.</p> <p>IUBAT Review, 6(2): 92-105</p> Firoz Akanda, Lulu Al Marzan Copyright (c) 2023 Firoz Akanda, Lulu-Al-Marzan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71310 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Response of Different Levels of Boron Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71311 <p>The study was carried out at the Agricultural Research Field of IUBAT to investigate the impact of varying levels of boron (B) fertilizer on the growth and production of okra (Hybrid Okra-Shomy). The experiment followed a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The experiment included four treatments: T0 (Control), T1 (1kg B ha-1), T2 (2kg B ha-1), and T3 (3kg B ha-1). These treatments were implemented in order to assess the optimal outcomes of the study. The findings of the study showed that T2 (2kgB/hac) treatment performed better in all aspects of growing parameter especially yield contributing traits like number of fruit/plant (89.75), number of fruit/treatment (387.98), individual fruit weight (17.34gm), number of seed/fruit (57.50),100 seed weight (8.15gm), yield/plant (387.98gm), yield/hac (1549.7kg), yield (17.09) ton/hac, Plant fresh weight/plant (524.81gm) and root length (20.40cm), respectively.</p> <p>IUBAT Review, 6(2): 106-114</p> Shaila Sharmin , Abdullah Al Kafi, Md Nazmul Hasan Arfin, Md Shohidullah Miah Copyright (c) 2023 Shaila Sharmin , Abdullah Al Kafi, Md Nazmul Hasan Arfin, Md Shohidullah Miah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71311 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Psychological Trauma of Mary Turner in Doris Lessing’s The Grass Is Singing https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71312 <p>This paper explores the traumas of Mary Turner, the protagonist of the widely celebrated novel The Grass Is Singing (1950) by Doris May Lessing (1919-2013). The plot of the novel centers on Mary Turner, a white farmer’s wife whose declining mental health and eventual tragedy reveal society’s deeply established biases and repressive structures. Psychological trauma includes abuse, violence, accidents, war, and witnessing traumatic occurrences that may cause long-term mental health issues such as flashbacks, nightmares, anxiety, despair, emotional numbness, and relationship issues. Therefore, using trauma theory and psychological frameworks, the study examines Mary’s traumatic experiences that shape her actions and interactions throughout the novel. In the novel, Mary seems to be terrified by her infantile memories, traumatized by the social slurs, and trapped in an African parched terrain, approximating the wasteland, from which she cannot escape. She has relentless nightmares about haunting sexuality, sporadically with her father or Moses. It seems that her repressed desires unlocked into her dreams persecute her inexorably. Therefore, she mislays control over herself and suffers from a complete nervous breakdown. Consequently, Mary undergoes a syndrome of psychopathology that includes neurosis, psychosis, paranoia, and personality disorder for which she cannot lead a normal life. A qualitative content analysis method is adopted to inspect Mary’s childhood trauma that persuades her disorders. The analysis suggests a correlation between adolescent trauma and psychosis, which can disrupt an individual’s sense of self, conduct, and mental state. Accordingly, Mary’s conscious control breaks down as her childhood pain returns, revealing her natural urges and unconscious side.</p> <p>IUBAT Review, 6(2): 115-130</p> Sheikh Saifullah Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Sheikh Saifullah Ahmed1 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71312 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Depths of Modern Life as Reflected in Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71313 <p>This paper explores the philosophical themes present in Franz Kafka's seminal work, The Metamorphosis (1915). Through an analysis of the novella, the paper delves into how Kafka grapples with profound issues such as alienation, existential crisis, and the human condition. The paper examines the transformative journey of the protagonist, GregorSamsa, who undergoes a physical and psychological metamorphosis into a bug, serving as a metaphor for the human experience of feeling disconnected from oneself and others. By immersing readers in Gregor's surreal and isolating world, Kafka prompts introspection into the inherent struggles of human existence. Moreover, the paper explores Kafka's masterful use of absurdity and dark humor throughout the narrative, shedding light on the futility of human existence and the inevitability of death. By interweaving absurd and grimly humorous elements, Kafka offers a critique of societal norms and underscores the existential anxieties that arise when confronted with the absurdity of life. The pervasive sense of irony and bleakness in the novella serves to highlight the absurd and inherently flawed nature of the human condition. Furthermore, the research paper delves into the influences that shaped Kafka's philosophy, particularly his Jewish identity and experiences living in a rapidly changing, industrializing society. Kafka's writing reflects the anxieties and struggles of individuals in a modernized world, highlighting the existential dilemmas faced by those grappling with societal expectations and personal identity. By examining the philosophical dimensions of "The Metamorphosis," this paper offers a nuanced and in-depth analysis of Kafka's views on the human experience and the search for meaning in modern life. It invites readers to engage with the profound questions raised by Kafka's work and provides valuable insights into his philosophical stance.</p> <p>IUBAT Review, 6(2): 131-157</p> Md Jashim Uddin Copyright (c) 2023 Md Jashim Uddin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71313 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 English Language Anxiety in Adult Learners: Challenges and Opportunities https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71314 <p>English language anxiety (ELA) is an issue among adults who are learning a language. It affects their experience and outcomes in language learning. This comprehensive review explores the nature of ELA, examining its aspects and implications for language instruction. The research investigates how the classroom environment, linguistic challenges, academic performance, communication difficulties, emotional well-being, motivation, and other personal and societal factors contribute to ELA. It also delves into the role of technology, self-reflection, and training in English language acquisition. The review emphasises the importance of creating inclusive language learning spaces, providing teacher training programmes, and encouraging self-practice to address English Language Anxiety (ELA). Moreover, evidence-based solutions such as task design and tolerance for errors are recommended to help students overcome ELA and enhance their overall language learning experience. The conclusions and suggestions presented in this review can be valuable for adult learners of languages who seek to understand and engage with individuals from diverse cultures.</p> <p>IUBAT Review, 6(2): 158-183</p> Kazi Imran Hossain, Ilias Ahmed, Md Sabid Mahmud Copyright (c) 2023 Kazi Imran Hossain, Ilias Ahmed, Md Sabid Mahmud https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://banglajol.info/index.php/IUBATR/article/view/71314 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000