Implementation of Ecological Distribution of Venomous Snakes for Clinical Management of Snakebite in Bangladesh

Authors

  • Ibrahim Khalil Al Haidar Department of Zoology, University of Chittagong, Chattogram-4331
  • Aniruddha Ghose Venom Research Centre, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram-4203
  • Mohammed Noman Venom Research Centre, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram-4203
  • Md Mizanur Rahman Venom Research Centre, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram-4203
  • Sajib Rudra Venom Research Centre, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram-4203
  • Abdul Auawal Venom Research Centre, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram-4203
  • Md Rafiqul Islam Venom Research Centre, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram-4203
  • Md Asir Uddin Venom Research Centre, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram-4203
  • Rabiul Alam Md Erfan Uddin Department of Medicine, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram-4203
  • Abdullah Abu Sayeed Department of Medicine, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram-4203
  • Md Robed Amin Non Communicable Disease Control (NCDC), Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS), Dhaka-1212
  • Md Farid Ahsan Department of Zoology, University of Chittagong, Chattogram-4331
  • Md Abul Faiz Venom Research Centre, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram-4203
  • Mohammad Abdul Wahed Chowdhury Venom Research Centre, Chittagong Medical College, Chattogram-4203

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3329/jom.v24i2.67278

Keywords:

Cobra, Envenomation, Epidemiology, Krait, Neglected Disease, Viper

Abstract

Background: Snakebite envenoming is a global health problem, mostly in tropical and subtropical countries. Bangladesh is a subtropical country facing thousands of snakebite envenoming death every year. Knowledge of the distribution of venomous snakes is necessary to identify snakebite-prone areas, develop strategies for prevention and management, and reduce venom-induced mortalities and morbidities.

Methods: An integrated effort of direct observations of snakes, qualitative analysis of museum specimen records, clinical records of snakebites, and scholarly literature records were used to understand the pattern of distribution of venomous snakes in Bangladesh.

Results: We enlist 65 venomous snake species from Bangladesh and present detailed documentation on their distribution pattern. However, only nine species were considered medically relevant species because of their venom potentiality to kill humans and available clinical records of envenomation. The distribution pattern of those species divides the country into two major portions. A portion consists of northern, northwestern, and western parts of the country, which are habitats of Naja naja, Bungarus caeruleus, and B. lividus. Another portion comprised of the northeastern, southeastern, and southern parts of the country provides habitats for N. kaouthia, B. niger, and Trimeresurus erythrurus. However, Daboia. russelii had a different distribution pattern along the bank of the Padma and Meghna, and some coastal districts. Moreover, B. walli had a scattered distribution over the country. The knowledge of this ecological distribution of venomous snakes across the country bears a significant practical effect on clinical management of snakebite. Treating physicians can have a better understanding of possible offending snake species using this knowledge and the clinical syndromes produced by venoms.

Conclusion: Pattern of distribution of medically relevant venomous snakes in Bangladesh approaches to initiate concise and specific bite management strategies for two distinct distributional regions of the country. Moreover, the distribution of D. russelii and B. walli demands specific strategies for bite management.

J MEDICINE 2023; 24(2): 139-151

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Published

2023-07-02

How to Cite

Al Haidar, I. K. ., Ghose, A., Noman, M. ., Rahman, M. M., Rudra, S., Auawal, A., Islam, M. R. ., Uddin, M. A., Md Erfan Uddin, R. A. ., Sayeed, A. A. ., Amin, M. R., Ahsan, M. F. ., Faiz, M. A. ., & Wahed Chowdhury, M. A. . (2023). Implementation of Ecological Distribution of Venomous Snakes for Clinical Management of Snakebite in Bangladesh. Journal of Medicine, 24(2), 139–151. https://doi.org/10.3329/jom.v24i2.67278

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Section

Review Articles