Progressive Agriculture The official journal of Progressive Agriculturists. Full text articles available en-US (Professor Dr. Md. Ruhul Amin) (Md. Fahmid Uddin Khondoker) Mon, 01 Mar 2021 07:13:47 +0000 OJS 60 Impact of common tobacco products on human health and environmental pollution in Bangladesh <p>Worldwide, tobacco is one of the leading causes of disability and death. Over a million of pounds of toxic chemicals are released by tobacco products. This study aims to explore the effects of tobacco toxicants on human health and environmental pollution. Four districts (Dhaka, Kushtia, Chattogram and Rangpur) were selected where most of the tobacco product grown. Total 468 respondents were interviewed face-to-face using structured questionnaire to assess the knowledge about toxicant content in tobacco and health and environmental hazards of tobacco use. Survey results revealed that about 44.4% respondents used smoking tobacco products and 38.5% used smokeless tobacco, while only 17.1% used both. About two third (74.3%) of smoking tobacco users started smoking when they were between 15 to 24 years old and majority (61.6%) of smokeless tobacco users started tobacco when they were between 30 to 35 years above. Tobacco product has large impacts on health of young smokers. Smokers are suffering from various acute and chronic diseases. Among the respondents, 38% indicated that they were suffering from hypertension. The second most affected disease was COPD/Asthma (31.6%), while cancer was the least suffering disease (0.4%). Majority of the respondents were not aware about the presence of toxicants (i.e. nicotine, tar and metals) in tobacco products. However, 85.1% tobacco users had an idea about environmental pollution. There is a lack of knowledge among the survey respondents about toxicants in tobacco products that are linked to health hazards and environmental pollution. These results are important in strengthening existing policy considering adverse health effects of toxicants examined.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture 31 (3): 130-143, 2020</em></strong></p> MA Mondol, AMM Hosain, S Sultana, S Marzia, MA Islam, HMM Mahmud, P Biswash ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Mar 2021 07:09:15 +0000 Influence of integrated use of cotton seed oilcake and mustard oilcake with chemical fertilizers on growth, yield and nutritional quality of rice <p>Cotton seed oilcake and mustard oilcake are excellent and high quality organic manures enriched with essential nutrient elements. A field experiment was carried out at the Soil Science Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during boro season of 2019 to investigate the influence of cotton seed oilcake and mustard oilcake on yield attributes, yield, nutrient content and uptake by rice cv. BRRI dhan29. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications and seven treatments viz. T<sub>1</sub>: control, T<sub>2</sub>: 100% Recommended Fertilizer Dose (RFD), T<sub>3</sub>: 50% RFD, T<sub>4</sub>: 50% nitrogen (N) from RFD + 50% N from cotton seed oilcake, T<sub>5</sub>: 50% N from RFD + 50% N from mustard oilcake, T<sub>6</sub>: 50% N from RFD + 25% N from cotton seed oilcake + 25% N from mustard oilcake, T<sub>7</sub>: 50% N from cotton seed oilcake + 50% N from mustard oilcake. The maximum values of all the yield components viz. plant height, panicle length, number of effective tillers hill<sup>-1</sup> and filled grains panicle<sup>-1</sup> and yields (grain and straw) were found in treatment T<sub>2</sub>. The highest content and uptake of nutrients – N, P, K and S were also recorded in T<sub>2</sub>. The performance of T<sub>4</sub> and T<sub>2</sub> was statistically similar in producing yield parameters, grain and straw yields, nutrient contents and uptake by rice. Among the integrated approaches, the performance of T<sub>4</sub> was the best as it produced the second highest grain yield of 6.24 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and straw yield of 8.17 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>with higher nutritional improvement of rice. Application of cotton seed oilcake compensated up to 50% of chemical fertilizer. Therefore, considering the significance of organic manures and soil health, cotton seed oilcake should be considered for application in association with chemical fertilizers for yield enhancement and nutritional improvement of rice.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture 31 (3): 144-153, 2020</em></strong></p> S Yasmin, MA Hashem, TS Hoque ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Mar 2021 07:09:27 +0000 Impact of air pollution in Mymensingh city of Bangladesh: focusing peoples’ perception <p>The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of air pollution in some selected areas of Mymensingh city. The relationship between independent variables (age, educational qualification, family size and communication exposure) with the basic idea and impact of air pollution (dependent variable) was investigated in this study. To conduct the study, two hundred (200) respondents were selected randomly from four study sites under Mymensingh city. Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients were analyzed to examine the relationship between the concerned variables. The findings revealed that 87.5% people have basic idea and 12.5% people have no idea about air pollution. About half (46%) of the peoples had high impact, 34% had medium and 20% had low impact because of air pollution. Out of four independent variables, three variables such as educational qualification and communication exposure had positive and significant relationship, age had negative but significant relationship and family size had non-significant relationship with their perception and awareness of air pollution. Further assessment on different air pollutants in the study area may explore the original status of air pollution and their impact on environment as well as on livelihood.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture 31 (3): 154-163, 2020</em></strong></p> MA Mondol, M Hossain, S Sultana, MA Islam, P Biswas ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Mar 2021 07:09:39 +0000 Utilization of crop residues in rural household of Bangladesh <p>This study examined the utilization of crop residues in agrarian zone of Bangladesh. Two categories of respondent participated in this study, such as old conservational agriculture research or farmer group and new conservational agriculture research or farmer group. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Crops grown within the study area includes rice, wheat, jute, pulses, oilseeds, maize, vegetables etc. Result of analysis shows that crops residues were mainly used for feeding their livestock (67.30%), cooking fuel (63.46%) and organic manure (74.04%) on the farms in old conservational agriculture research sites, where in new conservational agriculture research sites was used for feeding their livestock (68.64%), cooking fuel (57.06%) and organic manure (61.86%). It can therefore be concluded that crop residue are used within the study area as cooking fuel, animal feed, use with cow dung boll, fired at field, reuse during next cultivation and organic manure on farms.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture 31 (3): 164-177, 2020</em></strong></p> MS Islam, MA Hashem, S Islam, MH Alam, MA Rahim, M Akterruzzaman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Mar 2021 07:07:22 +0000 Exploring rice residue management practices focusing environmental pollution and soil health in six major rice growing upazilas of Mymensingh district in Bangladesh <p>The study was conducted in the six major rice growing upazilas under the district of Mymensingh of Bangladesh during the period from January to December 2018. The purpose of the study was to find out the present status of rice residue management practices focusing on the environmental pollution and soil health. The data were collected from randomly selected 300 respondents with the help of pre-designed respective questionnaire to serve the objectives of the study. The results indicated that most of the respondents were illiterate and they have lack of knowledge on environmental pollution and soil health. About 54.33% of the respondents (163) managed their rice residues by incorporation, about 2.3% of respondent (7) open burning and 43.33% of the respondents (130) collected for other use as cattle feeding, cooking fuel, animal bedding, roofs of house making etc. There was a good sign for the environment as a few number of respondents used their rice residues as burning. About 33.66% of the respondents (95) reported that burning is harmful for environment, create breathing problems, 48.33% of the respondents (145) have no idea about this and 9.33% of the respondents (28) said burning produce toxic gas. About 47.66% of the respondents (143) had given opinion to increase soil fertility, 15% of the respondents (45) said increases soil productivity, 13.3% of the respondents (41) said reduce chemical fertilizer using and 9% of the respondents (27) said decrease soil erosion. Some of the respondents said that, rice residue incorporation in soil saves money (5.66%), easy to apply (18.66%), eco-friendly (3.66) and have no idea about it (72%). About 55% respondents were satisfied in existing residues management system whereas 45% have given negative responses. Management of rice residues have faced the problem as lack of available labors (48%), costly (9%), lack of storing place (25.66%), lack of modern technology (12.66%). Most (70.66%) of the respondents (212) were collected information of residue management and environment pollution by the television and radio programmes. Finally, it can be said that, with the highest production of rice in our country, a huge number of residues are also produced. Rice residues may cause environmental pollutions and soil health degradation. Proper management is needed to overcome this environmental pollution as well as soil health degradation through enhancing suitable and environment friendly residue management practices.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture 31 (3): 178-189, 2020</em></strong></p> MA Mondol, AH Sani, KF Usha, S Marzia, P Biswash, MA Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Mar 2021 07:07:30 +0000 Evaluation of vermicompost use for cabbage production in two selected areas of Bangladesh <p>Vermicompost has various positive effects on soil, particularly soil fertility and productivity. Two experiments were conducted at farmer’s field of Mymensingh and Jamalpur to observe the effect of vermicompost on cabbage production during rabi season 2019. There were seven compost treatments viz: T<sub>1</sub>:&nbsp; RCF (N<sub>150</sub> P<sub>40</sub> K<sub>100</sub> S<sub>16</sub> Kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), T<sub>2</sub>: 85% RCF, T<sub>3</sub>: 70% RCF, T<sub>4</sub>: 85% RCF + 3 t ha<sup>-1</sup> vermicompost (VC), T<sub>5</sub>: 85% RCF + 1 t ha<sup>-1</sup> VC, T<sub>6</sub>: 70% RCF + 3 t ha<sup>-1</sup> VC and T<sub>7</sub>: 70% RCF + 1 t ha<sup>-1</sup> VC. The experiments were laid out in a RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design) with three replications. The average fresh yield at Mymensingh ranged from 36.5 to 61.6 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>with the highest yield of 61.6 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>from treatment T<sub>4 </sub>(85% RCF + 3 t ha<sup>-1</sup> VC). At Jamalpur, the average yield ranged from 33.5 to 55.2 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and the highest yield of 55.2 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>was recorded from treatment T<sub>4 </sub>(85% RCF + 3 t ha<sup>-1</sup> VC). The lowest yield was obtained from treatment T<sub>3</sub> in both the location. The percent fresh yield increased over control (T<sub>1</sub>), was 22.70 and 20.78 in Mymensingh and Jamalpur, respectively. The highest gross margin is Tk. 829007/-, which is obtained from treatment T<sub>4</sub> (85% RCF + 3 t ha<sup>-1</sup> VC). The highest MBCR 2.76 (average of two locations) was obtained from the same treatment T<sub>4</sub> (85% RCF + 3 t ha<sup>-1</sup> VC). Result indicated that application of vermicompost along with 85% recommended dose of chemical fertilizer is more profitable than application of chemical composts only.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture 31 (3): 190-194, 2020</em></strong></p> S Tasmin, MR Khan, MA Tarafder, MH Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Mar 2021 07:07:45 +0000 Production of phospho-vermicompost by earthworms mediated bio-conversion of organic residues and rock phosphate <p>A glass house experiment was conducted to develop phospho-vermicompost using different combination of organic residues amended with rock phosphate and earthworms at the Soil Science Division, BINA, Mymensingh. The experiment was conducted in a Completely Randomized Design with eight treatments and three replications. The treatments were as T<sub>1</sub>:50% Cowdung (CD) + 50% Mustard straw (MST), T<sub>2</sub>:50% CD + 50% Water hyacinth (WH), T<sub>3</sub>:50% CD + 50% Rice straw (RST), T<sub>4</sub>:50% CD + 25% WH + 25% RST, T<sub>5</sub>:50% CD + 50% MST + 4% Rock phosphate (RP), T<sub>6</sub>:50% CD + 50% WH + 4% RP, T<sub>7</sub>:50% CD + 50% RST + 4% RP, T<sub>8</sub>:50% CD + 25% WH + 25% RST + 4% RP. About 150 earth worms (<em>Eisenia foetida </em>or Red wiggler earthworms) were released on partial decomposed residues into the pots. At the end of the incubation, population of earthworms, total bacteria and phosphate solubilizing bacteria were determined from prepared vermicompost. pH, organic carbon, total N, P, K, S, available P and alkaline phosphatase activity were also determined from prepared vermicomposts. pH was found almost similar in all the treatment combinations but with rock phosphate amended treatments showed greater pH than without rock phosphate amended treatments. The treatment T<sub>8</sub> (50% cowdung +25% water hyacinth +25% rice straw with 4% rock phosphate powder + red wiggler earthworms) showed significantly highest population of earthworms, total bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALPA) and gave lower C:N and C:P ratio which might be resulted the higher amount of nutrients including available P in mature vermicompost. However, among the treatments, the treatments T<sub>8</sub> gave the highest total N (1.42%), P (1.45%), K (1.52%) and S (0.35%) and available P contents than that of other treatments which indicated the better quality of phospho-vermicompost. Therefore, 50% cowdung +25% water hyacinth +25% rice straw with 4% rock phosphate powder and red wiggler earthworms could be used for the production of phospho-vermicompost. The developed phospho-vermicompost could be used for supplement of phosphatic fertilizer and other chemical fertilizers in the cultivation of different crops and also could be saved of chemical fertilizers.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture 31 (3): 195-204, 2020</em></strong></p> MA Haque, MM Ali, MSH Bhuiyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Mar 2021 07:07:58 +0000 Evaluation of existing poultry processing and marketing in the wet market of Gazipur city in Bangladesh <p>The poultry selling and processing practices followed in the poultry wet markets of Bangladesh are always being overlooked unknowingly. The research was conducted to observe the existing scenario of poultry selling and processing practices at the selected wet markets located in the Gazipur City Corporation of Bangladesh. A total of 43 poultry selling shops were randomly selected and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. It was surprising to observe the absence of female personnel and involvement of few (6.9%) people over the age of 50 years in the wet markets. All the persons engaged in poultry selling and processing had no institutional training. The shops found to be abstained from following some important practices such as feed withdrawal period, isolation of diseased birds, ante and post mortem inspection. The proper bleeding time (1-2) min was recorded in 58.2% cases. The killing cone was recognized as the best device in terms bleeding time. The 72.1% of the outlets never cleaned the carcass prior to deliver the customers. The absence of ante- and post-mortem inspections may cause a great threat of disease outbreak. Taken together, the poultry selling and processing practices followed in the wet market needs to be assessed carefully to deliver safe and quality meat to the customers. In addition, organizing basic training on pre-slaughter management and processing for both seller and processor and also ensuring the regular ante- and post- mortem inspection could improve the present situation in order to produce quality poultry meat.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture 31 (3): 205-217, 2020</em></strong></p> M Khairunnesa, MH Jaman, M Noorunnahar, S Ahmed, MD Hossain, ABMR Bostami ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Mar 2021 07:08:14 +0000 Early sex determination of Turkey by observation of differences in body weight between male and female <p>The present study was conducted to determine the early sex in turkeys by observation of the differences in body weight between male and female birds. A total of 30-day old black color unsexed poults having almost similar body weight at hatching were considered for the experimentation and housed at the Poultry Farm of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh. All birds were reared up to 12 weeks of age under intensive management with supplementation of commercial broiler starter and grower feeds. Birds were reared under similar management conditions. Significantly higher (p&lt;0.01) body weight was attained in male poults (104g/bird) than the female (90g/bird) at the end of 1<sup>st</sup> week of age. Similarly, at the end of 2<sup>nd</sup> week of age higher (p&lt;0.01) body weight attained by male poults (198.31g/bird) than the female (162.13g/bird). At the end of 3<sup>rd </sup>weeks of age male poults attained higher (p&lt;0.01) body weight (307.23g/bird) than the female (251.33g/bird). After 4 weeks of rearing, male turkeys attained significantly higher (p&lt;0.01) live body weight (424.46g/bird) than the female turkeys (347.87g/bird). The weekly average body weight gains of male and female birds were 94.18g/bird and 76.5g/bird, respectively. Thus, the male and female birds were successfully identified on the basis of differences in their body weight. Weekly feed intake for both the male and female birds was also increased with their age. Up to 4 weeks of age, both the male and female poults consumed same amount of feed (753.46g/bird). The FCR of male and female poults differed non-significantly in 1<sup>st</sup>, 3<sup>rd</sup> and 4<sup>th</sup> week. On the contrary, in 2<sup>nd</sup> week of age the FCR of male poults (1.60) was significantly lower (p&lt;0.01) than female (2.11). Survivability was 100% up to 4<sup>th</sup> week of age irrespective of sex of the poults. The birds were reared up to 12 weeks of age until to confirm their sex by observation of the phenotypic appearance. Results of the phenotypic observation of male and female birds correspondence hundred percent accuracy with the results obtained in body weight based differences between male and female birds. It is therefore concluded that farmers can identify male or female poults as early as first week of age on the basis of body weight differences.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture 31 (3): 218-226, 2020</em></strong></p> S Akter, SC Das, AS Apu, T Ahmed, A Lahiry, A Afrin, NJ Nishat ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Mar 2021 07:08:34 +0000 Socioeconomic factors affecting profitability of seaweed culture in Saint Martin Island of Bangladesh <p>Seaweed culture provides financial benefits and creates employment opportunity for coastal inhabitants of Bangladesh.&nbsp; This study was conducted to assess profitability and to determine the socioeconomic factors that affect the profitability of seaweed culture in the coastal region. Primary data were collected from 33 seaweed farmers for the study. The data were collected during the period of March 15 to March 31, 2018 through direct interviews and observation using a semi structured questionnaire and a check list. Both tabular and functional analyses were used to achieve the objectives of the study. It is evident from the study that seaweed culture is a profitable business. The total per square-meter cost of seaweed production was Tk. 1520 with a gross return of Tk. 2801.4 and net return was estimated at Tk. 1281.4 with a Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) 1.82. To estimate the contribution of different inputs on seaweed production through Cobb-Douglas production function, the explanatory variables considered were: bamboo cost, rope cost, human labour cost, repairing cost, age, experience, training, education and number of family members. Among these variables, labour and training were found positively significant at 1 percent level of significance with the regression coefficient of 0.209 and 0.556, respectively. This indicates that seaweed culture might be brought economic benefits of the community if they received more training and employ more labour. Therefore, policy should be focused on creating appropriate training arrangement and skilled labour to the coastal community for getting higher benefit. Seaweed farmers think that seaweed culture can be adopted as an alternative livelihood option if the government and other stakeholders help them with necessary supports for seaweed culture.</p> <p><strong><em>Progressive Agriculture 31 (3): 227-234, 2020</em></strong></p> TK Ghose, MI Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Mar 2021 07:08:49 +0000