SAARC Journal of Agriculture Published by the SAARC Agricultural Centre, Bangladesh SAARC Agricultural Centre (SAC) en-US SAARC Journal of Agriculture 1682-8348 <p>© SAARC Agricultural Centre</p><p>Copyright on any research article is transferred in full to SAARC Journal of Agriculture upon publication in the journal. The copyright transfer includes the right to reproduce and distribute the article in any form of reproduction (printing, electronic media or any other form).</p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />Articles in the SAARC Journal of Agriculture are Open Access articles published under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>] CC BY License.</p><p>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> Morpho-Molecular Characterization and Screening of Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Genotypes for Salinity Tolerance at Seedling Stage <p>Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses which severely affect the production of crops across the world. Twenty rice genotypes of diverse origins were assessed to examine salt tolerance potentiality at seedling stage as well as to elucidate the genetic variation using SSR markers. Consequently, IRRI standard protocol was applied to screen out those varieties for tolerance at the glasshouse laboratory of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, maintaining salt stress level at 6dS m<sup>-1</sup>, 8dS m<sup>-1</sup>, 10dS m<sup>-1</sup> and 12 dS m<sup>-1</sup>. Data on morphological parameter were recorded as shoot length (cm), root length (cm) and total dry matter (TDM). For molecular characterization thirteen SSR markers were exploited to determine the genetic diversity and in this context, 53alleles were revealed while the mean number of alleles per locus was 4.The Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value ranged from 0.37- 0.78 having an average of 0.58. The Un-weighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) displayed three major clusters including some sub-clusters, where in Cluster 1, Binadhan- 8, Binadhan-10, Pokkali and FL478 were very close in their vicinity. Information obtained from this experiment, thus can be taken into account for stress breeding program and prospective genetic materials could be utilized for exploring the genetic architecture in favor of salt tolerance as well as for developing better salt tolerant rice varieties in near future.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 1-15 (2020)</em></p> SAA Muti MI Hoque MM Islam MA Siddique MS Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 1 15 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51104 Aqueous Extract of Mustard Crop Residues on Weed Management and Crop Performance of Wheat <p>Allelopathy is expected to be an important mechanism in the plant invasion process. The experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of mustard crop residues on weed management and crop performance of wheat. The experiment consisted of three cultivars of wheat viz., BARI Gom 19, BARI Gom 21, BARI Gom 24 and five levels of aqueous extract such as no crop residues (C0), mustard crop residues: chaffed leaves soaked in water in 1:20 ratio (w/v) (C<sub>1</sub>), 1:30 ratio (w/v) (C<sub>2</sub>), 1:40 ratio (w/v) (C<sub>3</sub>), hand weeding (C<sub>4</sub>). The maximum weed growth was noticed with the cultivar BARI Gom 19 and the minimum was found in the cultivar BARI Gom 21. The grain yield as well as the other yield contributing characters produced by BARI Gom 21was the highest among the studied varieties. The highest percent inhibition of all weed species was caused by hand weeding. The highest numbers of tillers hill-1, numbers of grains spike-1, 1000 grain weight, grain yield and straw yield were observed where hand weeding is done and followed by the application of aqueous extract in 1:20 ratio (w/v). BARI Gom 21 cultivar with all treatments produced the highest grain and straw yield among the treatment combination. The results indicate that different amount of aqueous extract of mustard crop residues showed potential activity to suppress weed growth and it has a significant effect on the yield of wheat. Therefore, mustard crop residues might be used as an alternative way for weed management in effective and sustainable crop production.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 17-26 (2020)</em></p> D Sarkar MR Uddin SK Paul UK Sarker F Ahmed S Pramanik DN Chadny ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 17 26 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51105 Genetic Diversity in Fiber Related Traits of Tossa Jute (Corchorus Olitorius L.) Germplam <p>Genetic diversity of twenty-one genotypes of tossa jute was studied through Mahalanobis D<sup>2</sup> statistic and principal component analysis for 15 quantitative traits related to yield at the research farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The genotypes were grouped into four clusters. Cluster III contained the highest number of genotypes (nine), while cluster II had the lowest number of genotypes (three). The inter-cluster distances were higher than intra-cluster distances indicating wider genetic diversity among the genotypes of different clusters. The intra-cluster distances were lower in all the cases reflecting homogeneity of the genotypes within the cluster. The highest intra-cluster distance was noticed for the cluster I and the lowest for cluster IV. The genotypes from cluster I could be selected as parents for hybridization for producing transgressive segregants. The highest inter-cluster distance was found between clusters I and IV followed by clusters I and III and the lowest was between clusters III and IV. Cluster IV recorded the highest mean value for plant height, base diameter, root length, leaf area, fresh weight with and without leaves, dry fiber weight and dry stick weight. In the total divergence, the highest contribution was recorded in plant height (65.1%) followed by base diameter (16.6%). The first two principal components, whose eigen values were greater than one, accounted for 81.7% of the total variations among the genotypes for fifteen fiber related traits. Considering the magnitude of cluster distance, cluster means for different characters and contribution of characters towards divergence, the genotypes G17, G18 from cluster IV; G1, G2, G5, G10, G16 from cluster I and G4 from cluster III could be selected as promising parents for hybridization program.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 27-37 (2020)</em></p> MT Islam BN Shompa J Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 27 37 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51106 Genetic Variation, Heritability and Genetic Advance in Some Promising Rice Hybrids <p>Eleven rice hybrids including two check varieties were evaluated to approximate their genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for ten quantitative traits. The analysis of variance illustrated that all the quantitative traits differed significantly indicating that enough variation is presenting the studied materials. Among the desirable quantitative traits number of filled spikelet’s per panicle was found to have highest both phenotypic and genotypic variance followed by total number of spikelet’s per panicle. Almost all the characters showed a little variation between PCV and GCV revealing little influence of the environment on the expression of traits. High phenotypic and genotypic variance coupled with high heritability and high genetic advance was observed for number of filled spikelet’s per panicle, total number of spikelet’s per panicle, plant height and number of unfilled spikelet’s per panicle. Such findings stipulated that these traits were governed by additive gene actions which are fixable and these traits may be accounted for reliable index of selection. The genotypes G3 (IR79156A × EL108R) and G6 (IR79156A × EL253R) were selected as high response superior promising rice hybrids for achievable yield advantage 49% and 23%, respectively over best check varieties. Therefore, the G3 and G6 are proposed to be extensively evaluated for further trial of variety release.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 39-49 (2020)</em></p> LF Lipi MJ Hasan A Akter MR Quddus PL Biswas A Ansari S Akter ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 39 49 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51107 Effect of Bulb Sizes on the Seed Yield of Two Onion (Allium Cepa L.) Varieties <p>An experiment was carried out at Horticulture Farm of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period from October 2018 to March 2019 to examine the effects of different bulb size viz., large size bulb (15±1 g), medium size bulb (10±1 g), small size bulb (7±1 g) on seed production of two onion varieties (Taherpuri and Kalash Nagari). Significant variation observed in both varieties for most of the parameters based on onion bulb size. The variety Kalash Nagari showed better performances compared to variety Taherpuri. After 60 days of planting, Kalash Nagari variety gave the highest plant height (55.07 cm), number of leaves (20.62), stalk length (100.78 cm), and total seed yield (630 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), while in Taherpuri plant height, leaf number, stalk length and total seed weight were 32.21 cm, 6.93, 61.47 cm and 270 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. Large sized bulb gave better performance compared to small sized bulb. The large sized bulb gave highest plant height (49.83 cm) and highest total seed yield (490 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Medium size bulb gave the seed yield (460 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and lowest in small size bulb (390 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). Seed yield was significantly affected by the combined effects of variety and bulb size. Kalash Nagari onion with large sized bulb gave the highest seed yield (660 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and Taherpuri variety with small sized bulb gave the lowest seed yield (180 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>).</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 51-65 (2020)</em></p> S Ahmed MA Rahim M Moniruzzaman MA Khatun FN Jahan R Akter ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 51 65 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51108 Germination and Seed Vigour of Indigenous Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Genotype in Nepal <p>Bean is an important vegetable crop of Nepal but farmers of Jumla district of Nepal are experiencing low productivity, probably due to poor germination. Keeping these points in view, a study was conducted to determine the germination and seed vigour of various indigenous beans genotype of Jumla district during February to March, 2018. The promising lines of Jumli beans namely KBL-3, KBL-2, PB0002, PB0001, KBL-1 and farm saved KBL-3 were used under study. The experiment was laid in completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications and six treatments namely T<sub>1</sub> = KBL-3, T<sub>2</sub> = KBL-2, T<sub>3</sub> = PB0002, T<sub>4</sub> = PB0001, T<sub>5</sub> = KBL-1 and T<sub>6</sub> = Farm-saved KBL-3. Significant differences were observed in germination percentage, speed of germination, seed vigourindex and true leaf emergence among different lines of Jumli beans .The highest germination percentage (96%), seed vigour index (1367) and speed of germination (1.763) was found in the variety of KBL-3 whereas the lowest germination percentage (69%), seed vigour index (947) and speed of germination (0.968) were found in the variety of KBL-1. Days to true leaf emergence was found shortest in the KBL-3 (23.50) and longest in the farm saved KBL-3 (30.25). KBL-3 pureline of Jumli bean was found to be highly responsive to seed germination and vigour characteristics. Thus, it would be better to suggest the indigenous bean growing farmers of Jumla district to cultivate KBL-3 for better germination and seed vigour.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 67-75 (2020)</em></p> Anupam Uprety Bhishma Raj Dahal Bishal Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 67 75 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51109 Comparative Efficacy of Silver Metallic Plastic Mulch, Botanicals and Insecticides in Controlling Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Disease <p>Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl caused by Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) is one of the most important diseases of tomato causing heavy losses in yield and quality of fruits. Damage caused through phloem feeding and transmission of TYLCV by the insect vectors whitefly (Bemisiatabaci). In this study the competence of silver metallic plastic mulch, botanicals and insecticides were assessed to manage the Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) by controlling the insect vectors. In total 7 treatments including control were considered viz. T<sub>1</sub>=Imidacloprid, T<sub>2</sub>= ACmix, T<sub>3</sub>= Subicron, T<sub>4</sub>= Neemax, T<sub>5</sub>= Multineem, T<sub>6</sub> = Silver metallic plastic mulch and T<sub>7</sub>= Control. All the treatments showed significant influence on different assayed parameters in the test crop tomato. The lowest disease incidence, disease severity and whitefly association was found in T6 treatment (silver metallic plastic mulch) that was 2.87%, 1.72% and 2.0% at 60 days after transplanting (DAT) respectively. While the highest disease incidence, disease severity and whitefly association were found in T<sub>7</sub> treatment (control treatment) that was 14.71%, 46.22% and 18, respectively, at 60 DAT. From the relationship study between disease incidence and disease severity with whitefly association, it was revealed that disease incidence and severity of TYLCV was increased with increasing of whitefly population and vice-versa. Among the treatments, growth parameters, yield and yield attributers were also found better in T6treatment (silver metallic plastic mulch). Silver metallic plastic mulch is the best option to manage the TYLCV by controlling the insect vectors, whitefly instead of insecticides.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 77-86 (2020</em><em>)</em></p> S Akter MB Hossain S Akter T Hasan AU Mahmud ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 77 86 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51110 Evaluation of Tomato Varieties Against Resistance to Fruit Borer (Helicoverpa Armigera Hub.) <p>Sixteen tomato varieties were evaluated against fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera) to find out borer resistant tomato varieties. The eight varieties were collected from Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) and eight varieties from the farmer’s field of South-west Bangladesh. This field experiment was conducted in a protected net house suitable for inoculation of the fruit borer at germplasm center of Khulna University for two years (2018 and 2019). Data were collected on fruit physical characters, and borer infestation. The genotypes BARI Tomato-18, BARI Tomato-16, Ruma-VF, Pusa Ruby and Guli had the minimum weight of infested fruit (3.57%, 3.63%, 4.83%, 7.17% and 7.67%, respectively ) as well as the minimum number of infested fruits (both were bellow10%) with the minimum number of larvae of H. armigera (0.23, 0.28, 0.27, 0.54 and 0.60 larvae plant<sup>-1</sup>, respectively). BARI Tomato-8, BARI Tomato-17 and Paltola were found as more susceptible (29.71%, 26.01% and 28.95% infestation, respectively) than the others. Maximum fruit weight plant<sup>-1</sup> was recorded from the genotypes BARI Tomato-18, BARI Tomato-19, Surakha and Paltola (2603g, 2687g, 2755g and 2731g respectively) and among these BARI Tomato-18 and Suraksa gave maximum fresh yield plant<sup>-1</sup> (2512.77 g and 2476.53 g, respectively). The fruit infestation rate was significantly and positively correlated with fruit weight loss plant<sup>-1</sup> (r = 0.971), larvae plant<sup>-1</sup> (r = 0.789), fruit diameter (r = 0.567) and individual fruit weight (r = 0.545). On the other hand, the fruit shape index (r = -0.44) and the number of fruit plant<sup>-1</sup> (r = -0.498) were significant and negatively correlated with fruit infestation rate. It could be concluded that BARI Tomato-18 and BARI Tomato-16 are resistant as well as high yielding varieties.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 87-99 (2020)</em></p> S Nasrin MA Mannan MM Islam SAKU Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 87 99 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51111 Effect of Different Organic Manures on Growth, Yield, and Quality of Radish (Raphanus Sativus) <p>An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of different organic manures on growth, yield, and quality of radish (Raphanus sativus) at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Rupandehi, Nepal. The experiment was laid in Randomized Complete Block Design single factorial with seven treatments and three replications. The treatments were consisted as farmyard manure (FYM) (30 tha<sup>-1</sup>), poultry manure (PM) (30 tha<sup>-1</sup>), FYM(15 tha<sup>-1</sup>) + PM (15 tha<sup>-1</sup>), FYM (15 tha<sup>-1</sup>) + vermin compost (2.5 tha<sup>-1</sup>) + phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) (10kgha<sup>-1</sup>), FYM (15 tha<sup>-1</sup>) + bone meal (5 tha<sup>-1</sup>) + PSB ( 10 kgha<sup>-1</sup>), PM (15 tha<sup>-1</sup>) + vermi compost (2.5 tha<sup>-1</sup>) + PSB (10 kgha<sup>-1</sup>), PM (15 tha<sup>-1</sup>) + bone meal (5 tha<sup>-1</sup>) + PSB (10 kgha<sup>-1</sup>). A significant variation was observed among the treatments. The poultry manures combined with bone meal and PSB significantly increased the growth and yield attributes viz., plant height (43.43 cm), number of leaves (20.9), shoot length (44.49 cm), root length (21.68 cm), root diameter (3.77 cm), root weight (211.3 gm plant<sup>-1</sup> ), shoot weight (170.9 gm plant<sup>-1</sup>), biological yield (82.28 gm plant<sup>-1</sup>), dry root weight (46.89 gm plant<sup>-1</sup>), dry shoot weight (50.33 gm plant<sup>-1</sup>), total dry weight (97.22 gm plant<sup>-1</sup>), root yield (49.31 tha<sup>-1</sup>), shoot yield (939.87 tha<sup>-1</sup>) and biological yield (89.19 tha<sup>-1</sup>) at 70 days after sowing. The vitamin-C in radish root was recorded highest (2.87 mgml<sup>-1</sup>) with PM. However, the total soluble solid remains unchanged among the treatments. In total, the results suggested that poultry manures combined with bone meal and PSB is suitable to cultivate radish.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 101-114 (2020)</em></p> B Gyewali B Maharjan G Rana R Pandey R Pathak PR Poudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 101 114 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51112 Polymorphism of Sakini Chicken Population From Different Locations/Altitudes of Nepal Using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic Dna Markers <p>A study was conducted to evaluate genetic polymorphism in three Sakini chicken populations using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with seven highly polymorphic primers. All populations showed polymorphism with these primers that generates 59 different bands with an average of 8.4 bands per primer with 78.6% polymorphism nature. Primer OPA-16 produced the highest number of polymorphism bands 47 % and the lowest number of bands was produced by the OPA-05 primer 24 %. Differences for genetic distance (D) among populations were significant (P&lt;0.05). A consensus dendogram was therefore developed to show the phylogenetic relationship among the populations. The cluster pattern is well supported by the principle component analysis that also separates all three populations of Sakini chicken into six major groups. The results provide evidence of the applicability of RAPD to determining genetic relatedness within and among different poultry populations and in developing reproducible markers useful in evaluating individual variation in poultry.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 115-124 (2020)</em></p> NA Gorkhali R Dhakal S Sapkota P Koirala BR Pokhrel MR Kolachhapati N Bhattarai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 115 124 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51113 Substitution of Soybean Meal by Shrimp Head Meal (Penaeus Monodon) in Poultry Ration for the Performance of Growing Pullets <p>To minimize the production cost of poultry and poultry products, it is important to formulate low cost balanced ration utilizing unconventional feed resources. Therefore, the experiment was carried out to measure the effect of substituting soybean meal (SBM) by different levels of shrimp head meal (SHM) to the ration of growing layer pullets. A control corn-soybean layer grower (pullet) diet and four different levels of SHM included diets as substitution of SBMwere fed to five groups of Hisex White pullets from 5th to 18th weeks of age. All groups of pullets fed isocaloric feeds (2765 Kcal kg<sup>-1</sup>). The control group T0 (0 % SHM+20 % SBM) received grower ration formulated with traditional feed ingredients with no substitution of SBM. The SBM contents of other treatment groups were substituted at the rate of 25 %, 50 %, 75 % and 100 % by the SHM and were adjusted as 5 % SHM+15 % SBM (T<sub><sup>1</sup></sub>), 10 % SHM+10 % SBM (T<sub>2</sub>), 15 % SHM+5 % SBM (T<sub>3</sub>) and 20 % SHM+0 % SBM (T<sub>4</sub>) keeping other ingredients constant as of control. Cumulative feed intake increased with the increasing level of SHM of diets. Feed cost and mortality rate decreased with the increasing level of SHM in the ration. Significantly lowest FCR at most of the age categories, highest cumulative body weight (p&lt;0.05) at 18 weeks and highest weight at maturity (p&lt;0.05) were found in treatment group fed 5 % SHM. Therefore, it can be concluded that substitution of 25 % SBM of the ration by SHM is suitable for the better performance of growing layer pullets.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 125-137 (2020)</em></p> SS Islam C Paul Md B Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 125 137 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51114 Effect of Different Level of Lemon Extract on Quality and Shelf Life of Chicken Meatballs During Frozen Storage <p>The aim of the current study was to find out the effect of adding different levels of lemon extract to the chicken meatballs. Fresh lemon extract was incorporated into freshly prepared meatball and compared with 0.01 % beta hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and control (without antioxidant). For this purpose, chicken meatball samples were divided into four treatment groups; viz. T<sub>0</sub> (Control), T<sub>1</sub> (0.01% BHT), T<sub>2</sub> (0.5 % lemon extract) and T<sub>3</sub> (1 % lemon extract). The study was conducted in completely randomized factorial design. The samples were analyzed for determination of sensory, proximate components, physicochemical, biochemical and microbiological qualities at 0, 30th and 90th days of preservation. Color, flavor, Juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) among different treatment groups than control and BHT group but decreased at different days of intervals. Dry matter (DM) content decreased significantly (p&lt;0.05) with different treatment levels than control and BHT group and increased with days of intervals. Crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and Ash of all treatments were decreased significantly (p&lt;0.05) among different treatment groups. Raw pH, cooked pH and cooking loss were decreased significantly (p&lt;0.05) with different treatment levels than control and BHT group and decreased with days of intervals. Free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (POV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value were decreased significantly (p&lt;0.05) with different treatment levels than that of control and BHT group and increased with days of intervals. Total viable count (TVC), total coli form count (TCC) and total yeast mould count (TYMC) decreased significantly (p&lt;0.05) at different treatment levels than that of control and BHT group. Therefore, it can be concluded that 1 % lemon extract for formulation of value-added chicken meatballs was enriched source as natural antioxidant.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 139-156 (2020</em><em>)</em></p> MNA Disha MA Hossain MT Kamal MM Rahman MA Hashem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 139 156 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51115 Effect of Total Mixed Ration Based Complete Pellet Feed on the Performances of Stall Fed Native Sheep <p>A complete pellet feed was developed using 40 % roughage (Rice straw) and 60 % concentrate (Rice polish 50 %, Maize crush 16 %, Soybean meal 20 %, Molasses 10 %, Salt 2 %, DCP 1 %, Vitaminmineral premix 0.5 %, Pellet binder 0.5 %) for commercial sheep production under stall feeding system. To know the effect of complete pellet feed on animal performances, both on-station and on-farm trials were conducted in growing sheep. The results of the experiment demonstrated that in the traditional system of rearing; only 22.42 g daily weight gain was observed. While, feeding of complete pellet feed achieved 84.98 g, and 100.67 g daily weight gain at on-farm and on-station condition respectively suggesting that pelleting enhanced the efficiency of utilization of feed. However, no differences were observed for the feed cost per kg weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and benefit-cost ratio (BCR) among the pellet feeding group and other group. But results suggest that complete pellet feed would be more economical for commercial sheep production under the stall-fed condition and farmers would be more benefited using complete pellet feed compared to conventional grass or urea molasses straw (UMS) and concentrate based feeding system. No disease or clinical symptoms were observed in the animals during the experimental period, suggesting that pellet feeds are well accepted by the sheep and results in better growth rate.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 157-166 (2020</em><em>)</em></p> S Ahmed MRH Rakib MA Hemayet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 157 166 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51116 Boosting Rice Production Through Narrowing of Exploitable Yield Gap <p>The yield gap discussed in this paper is the difference between the potential farm yield and the actual average farm yield of rice is 1.92 t ha-1 in Bangladesh. The yield gap is mainly caused by physical, biophysical, socioeconomic and institutional factors. Different strategies, such as integrated crop management (improve adapted varieties, site specific nutrient management, locally adapted integrated weed management and optimized water management) practices, timely supply of inputs including credit to farmers, research and extension collaboration to transfer the new technologies have been discussed to minimize yield gap. Suggestions have been made to make credit available to resourcepoor small farmers to buy necessary inputs, reducing transaction cost, simplifying lending procedures and strengthening monitoring mechanism of the current credit system are, however, essential to enable the farmers to avail the credit facility. Efforts should be made to update farmers’ knowledge on the causes of yield gaps in crops and measures to narrow the gaps through training, demonstrations, field visits and monitoring by extension agencies to achieve high yield. Based on present yield gap of rice (1.92 t ha-1) at least Tk. 556 billion could be earned from the additional production annually by narrowing 40 % the yield gap.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 167-180 (2020)</em></p> MB Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 167 180 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51117 Impact of Hydrometeorological Hazards on Agricultural Production at Chalan Beel, Bangladesh <p>Agriculture of Bangladesh is closely dependent on weather, rainfall pattern and land formation. However, frequent hydro-meteorological hazards cause to adversely affect the normal agricultural process and production. This study aimed to assess the impact of Hydro meteorological hazards on the crop cultivation practices, possible mitigation and adaptation measures for the farmers at Chalan Beel area under Pabna district, Bangladesh. There are 90 people having land and engaged with crop cultivation directly at Chalan Beel were been selected by applying purposive sampling method and interviewed by a pre-designed semi-structured questionnaire through face to face interview. The results revealed that Rice (93.75 %) and Garlic (47.5 %) are the major cultivating crops at Chalan Beel and 96 % of the farmers were been experienced with hydrometeorological devastation. The farmers perceived Nor’wester (77.9 %) as the most frequent hazard causing crop damage following by Heavy Rainfall (71.4 %), Hailstorm (68.8 %), Heavy Wind (45.5 %), Flashflood (42.9 %), Heavy Fog and Floods (19.5 % and 11.7 %) respectively. It is also identified that Nor’wester (58.4 %) and Heavy Rainfall (58.4 %) had maximum damage whereas Hailstorm (55.8 %), Heavy Wind and Flashflood also considerable adverse effects on overall crop production at this area. Only 24 % of farmers were found to change their cultivation pattern as the adaptation measure. This study portrayed that hydro-meteorological hazards are adversely affecting the crop production at Chalan Beel area and resulting economic loss. Therefore, government should ensure the participation of farmers along with adopting their deliberative in developing a strategic plan for providing technical support for diversification and training to adapt in this hazard prone area.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 181-193 (2020)</em></p> A Ahmed MS Hossain AK Majumder ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 181 193 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51118 Profitability and Resource Use Efficiency of Mustard Cultivation <p>Climatic condition is conducive to cultivate mustard in Bangladesh and there are ample opportunity to improve the present scenario of production, since the demand of oilseeds is high. But economic analysis of production of this crop remains unnoticed most of the time. For assessment of the profitability and resource use efficiency, a field level study was conducted with 100 mustard growers, who were selected purposively and interviewed with pre tested questionnaire from Manikganj district during the period May to August 2019. Applying the Cobb-Douglas production model the results suggested that farmers earned 18577.91 Tk ha-1 by producing 1683.75 kg ha-1 Mustard with the Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) 1.28. Land preparation cost, seed, human labour, irrigation and fertilizer had a significant positive effect on the yield of Mustard while insecticides had negative insignificant effect. Farmers were inefficient in case of resource use. Mustard cultivation is profitable in Bangladesh and has the potentiality to minimize import cost of oilseeds. Mustard production can be increased further by ensuring adequate supply of labor at peak period with reasonable wage rate, incentive price of produce for farmers, sufficient drainage system after flood, collateral free and easy access to credit, crop insurance to mustard growers.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 195-206 (2020</em><em>)</em></p> AY Sampa F Sarker MR Rahman R Begum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 195 206 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51119 Adoption of Climate Resilient Cropping Patterns in Southern Coastal Region of Bangladesh: Farmer’s’ Perception <p>The study was carried out in Batiaghata upazila of Khulna district to identify different climate resilient cropping patterns that had been practiced over the past three decades as well as the farmers’ perception about the causes of adopting climate resilient cropping patterns. Information was collected through personal interview, focus group discussion, systematic study of available records and browsing internet. A slight change was observed regarding climate resilient cropping pattern over the last 30 years in the study area. About 30 years ago, five cropping patterns were practiced, only one pattern (Fallow-Fallow-T. Aman) was found climate resilient. About 20 years ago, 11 cropping patterns were practiced, 5 patterns (Fallow-Fallow- T. Aman, Boro-Fallow-T. Aman, Boro-Gher (vegetables)-T. Aman, Boro-Gher (vegetables)-Fallow and Fallow-Gher (vegetables)-T. Aman) were found climate resilient. About 10 years ago, 11 cropping patterns were practiced, 7 patterns (Sesame-Fallow-T. Aman, Boro- Fallow-T. Aman, Boro-Gher (vegetables)-Fallow, Fallow-Fallow- T.Aman, Boro-Jute-T. Aman, Boro-Gher (vegetables)-T. Aman and Fallow-Gher (vegetables)-T. Aman) were found climate resilient. At present, 14 cropping patterns are being practiced. Out of which, six patterns are climate resilient. Respondents justified nine causes for adopting climate resilient cropping patterns, while increase in cropping intensity was the most significant, while lower input cost was least significant. Most of the respondents (93.80%) had highly clear perception and the rest (6.20%) had moderately clear perception. A positive relationship of education and mass media exposure was observed with their perception.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 207-217 (2020)</em></p> J Sultana MB Ahmed MY Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 207 217 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51120 Analysis of Seasonal Price Fluctuations of Paddy (Boro) in Bangladesh <p>This paper has focused on seasonal variations of price and trend of the price escalation of paddy in Bangladesh using monthly average wholesale price of Boro paddy over a period from 2001 to 2019. Secondary data were used in this study and collected from different secondary sources. The multiplicative model was exercised in this study; the least square method was applied to find out the long-term changes occurring in the price of paddy and the ratio to moving average method was used to measure seasonal fluctuations in price of paddy. It was evidently observed from the study that seasonal fluctuations in price of paddy prevail in Bangladesh as seasonal indices were deviated from hundred in different months. April to August, the price of paddy was lower compare to other months’ price because April and Mayare the harvesting period of Boro paddy and resulted in more supply to the market. From August, it was increasing gradually and reached to the highest position on March with 112.15. Long-term trend analysis showed that prices of paddy will increase Tk. 72.80 per quintal higher annually compare to the country’s average price.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 219-226 (2020)</em></p> S Islam S Afrin T Afrin MM khatun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 219 226 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51121 Effects of Different Growth Regulators on Seed Germination and Vigor of Pot Marigold (Calendula Officinalis. L) <p>Flowers are valued to mankind from the dawn of civilization. Flowers are used for various purposes in our day to day life like worshipping, religious and social functions, wedding, interior decoration, natural colours, dyes, scents and self adornment. Calendula officinalis is used as sudorific, blood refiner, blood sugar reducer and also use as anti-inflammatory skin. Seed testing is an essential step for evaluation of planting value of seeds, to minimize the risk of failure in planting low quality seeds. The importance of seed testing in agricultural crops has long been realized. Seed testing is also necessary to determine the need for drying and processing, to determine the quality standards under seed certification and seed law enforcement program, to identify seed quality problems and their probable causes and to provide basis for price fixation and consumer discrimination of seed lots etc.the 200ppm concentration of GA3 shows the significant and positive effect on the various germination and seedling parameters under study shows that GA3 is the best priming substance for the healthy and better germination in pot marigold.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 227-231 (2020)</em></p> R Singh YS Tariyal JS Chauhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 227 231 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51122 Seasonal Abundance and Infestation of Fruit Fly on Cucumber <p>Population dynamics and infestation of fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) was monitored on cucumber, Cucumis sativus using methyl eugenol trap during summer and autumn in 2017 at Gazipur, Bangladesh. Relationship between the abundance of fruit fly and meteorological factors was also studied. The fruit fly showed significantly higher abundance in summer compared to autumn. The larval population per fruit was found higher in summer (24.9 fruit-1) than that in autumn (1.5 fruit-1). The daily mean temperature had significant positive, light intensity had insignificant positive, relative humidity had insignificant negative and rainfall had insignificant negative correlation with fruit fly abundance. The temperature, light intensity, relative humidity and rainfall individually contributed to fruit fly abundance of 14.1 %, 24.0 %, 0.8 % and 1.8 %, respectively. The combined effect of the weather parameters on fruit fly abundance was 40.7 % and the equations were insignificant. The fruit fly showed significantly lower level of infestation in methyl eugenol treated plots as compared to controls in both summer and autumn.</p> <p><em>SAARC J. Agri., 18(2): 233-241 (2020)</em></p> S Nahid MR Amin MM Haque SJ Suh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-04 2021-01-04 18 2 233 241 10.3329/sja.v18i2.51123