Carrier Detection of Thalassaemia and Haemoglobinopathies in Tribal Population of Bangladesh
Keywords:Tribal population, Beta thalassaemia trait, Haemoglobin E trait, Haemoglobin E disease
Tribal population constitutes 1.8 percent of total population of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in the tribal population of Bangladesh to detect haemoglobinopathies and beta thalassemia trait. Another purpose of the study was to create awareness about thalassaemia and haemoglobinopathies among these indigenous groups. It was a cross sectional study conducted from September 2015 to November 2015. A total of 460 random samples were collected from three tribal groups, 175 cases from Chakma, 187 cases from Garo and 98 cases from Marma. Two cc of venous blood were collected in EDTA tube. Haemoglobin variants were studied by HPLC method using Variant Hemoglobin Testing System (Variant II Beta Thalassemia Short Program). Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS statistical package (version 15). Data was analyzed by frequency distribution. Abnormal Haemoglobin variants were seen in 287 cases (62.4%) out of 460 cases and only173 cases (37.6%) showed normal haemoglobin pattern. Haemoglobin E trait was the most common abnormality seen in 164 cases (35.6%) followed by Haemoglobin E disease which was seen in 101 cases (22%), Beta thalassaemia trait was seen in 22 cases (4.8%). This study shows a high percentage of Haemoglobin E trait and Haemoglobin E disease. Beta thalassaemia trait is also higher in comparison with randomly selected general population of Bangladesh. After calculating the estimate burden of child born per year by Harding Weinberg equation, it was to be found that the significant result which shows that 1552 new haemoglobin E beta thalassaemia and 22 new beta thalassaemia patients born per year in the tribal population. So, the tribal population should be properly screened and counseled for thalassaemia and haemoglobinopathies.
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