Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis, median lethal dose (LD50), hematological and biochemical effects of various extracts of Abrus precatorius seeds in Mus musculus
Keywords:Abrus precatorius seed, Blood tonic, Hypocholesterolemic, Immunosuppressant, Renotoxicity
Objective: Abrus precatorius is a universal panacea in herbal medicine. In view of this, phytochemical screening, proximate analysis, median lethal dose (LD50), hematological and biochemical effects of extracts of A. precatorius seed was studied in Mus musculus.
Materials and methods: Nineteen (19) mice were used for the study. Four (4) mice were used for determination of median lethal dose of the aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts respectively. The LD50 of aquous and ethyl acetate extracts was estimated at 187.5±62.5 mg/Kg and 175±75 mg/Kg respectively. The remaining fifteen (15) mice divided into 3 groups of 5 each were used for hematological and biochemical studies. Group 1 was administered 1 mL of distilled water while groups 2 and 3 were administered 1/10th (18.75 mg/Kg) of LD50 (187.5 mg/Kg) of methanolic and ethanolic seed extracts, for a period of 4 weeks.
Results: Proximate analysis showed the presence of moisture, ash, crude protein and crude fiber. Carbohydrate and organic matter were calculated. Phytochemical screening showed alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins, saponins, and reducing sugars in both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Cardiac glycosides were present in aqueous extract. Hematology revealed increased packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) whereas red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased. Biochemistry revealed significantly decreased (P<0.05) total protein, albumin, cholesterol, globulin and albumin/globulin ratio whereas creatinine and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased.
Conclusion: A. precatorius seed extracts are very toxic and can be used as blood tonic, immunosupressant, hypocholesterolemic and renotoxic.
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