Tackling the COVID-19 Pandemic- A Review
Keywords:COVID-19, Diagnosis, SARS-CoV-2, Symptoms, Treatment
Since December 2019, a new type of coronavirus called novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, or COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, China and on March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak a global pandemic. With more than 101,797,158 confirmed cases, resulting in 3,451,354 deaths as of May 21, 2021, the world faces an unprecedented economic, social, and health impact. The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 has a wide range of manifestations, ranging from an asymptomatic state or mild respiratory symptoms to severe viral pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Several diagnostic methods are currently available for detecting the coronavirus in clinical, research, and public health laboratories. Some tests detect the infection directly by detecting the viral RNA using real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and other tests detect the infection indirectly by detecting the host antibodies. Additional techniques are using medical imaging diagnostic tools such as X-ray and computed tomography (CT). Various approaches have been employed in the development of COVID-19 therapies. Some of these approaches use drug repurposing (e.g. Remdesivir and Dexamethasone) and combinational therapy (e.g. Lopinavir/Ritonavir), whilst others aim to develop anti-viral vaccines (e.g. mRNA and antibody). Additionally, health experts integrate data sharing, provide with guidelines and advice to minimize the effects of the pandemic. These guidelines include wearing masks, avoiding direct contact with infectious people, respiratory and personal hygiene. Taken together, an extensive knowledge on transmission mechanisms, clinical spectrums, specific diagnostics methods, host-virus interactions are required to tackle this pandemic.
J. Bio-Sci. 29(2): 175-186, 2021 (December)
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