Factors affecting iodine content of cow milk-A review


  • MMH Khandakar Department of Agriculture, Nutrition, and Food Systems, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, 03824, USA; Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh
  • MA Islam Department of Dairy Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh




Iodine; cow milk; feeding; environment; management; processing


This review discusses the importance of iodine as an essential nutrient for human health and the factors that can influence the concentration of iodine in cow milk. For an adult, the daily recommended requirement of iodine is 150 µg/day and the maximum tolerable limit ranges from 600 to 1100 µg/day. Cow milk is a significant source of iodine in many countries, particularly in areas where iodine-rich foods are not readily available. Therefore, evaluating the variables that affect the iodine content of cow milk is important. The iodine concentration of cow milk can vary depending on several factors such as genetics, diet, environment, management practices, season, and processing. Particularly, dietary supplementation and feed composition have been identified as the most impactful on milk's iodine levels, offering a practical approach to mitigating iodine deficiency. Furthermore, environmental factors like soil and water iodine content and management practices, including the type of farming, play substantial roles. Seasonal changes also significantly affect iodine levels, with higher concentrations typically observed in winter due to different feeding practices. The iodine content of cow milk falls between 147 to 605 µg/kg and the highest value of 11100 µg/L was recorded in camel milk. Milk could supply up to 60% of the daily dietary requirement of iodine for an adult person. To fight iodine deficiency through the appropriate approach to such concerns, one must have an in-depth understanding of these issues. This review paper aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of these factors and their implications for human and public health strategies.

Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science 53 (1): 1-12, 2024   


Download data is not yet available.




How to Cite

Khandakar, M., & Islam, M. (2024). Factors affecting iodine content of cow milk-A review. Bangladesh Journal of Animal Science, 53(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjas.v53i1.72437