Solubility and Dissolution of Drug Product: A Review
Keywords:drug product, solubility
The oral route of drug administration is the most common and preferred method of delivery due to convenience and ease of ingestion. From a patients perspective, swallowing a dosage form is a comfortable and a familiar means of taking medication. As a result, patient compliance and hence drug treatment is typically more effective with orally administered medications as compared with other routes of administration, for example, parenteral.
Although the oral route of administration is preferred, for many drugs it can be a problematic and inefficient mode of delivery for a number of reasons. Limited drug absorption resulting in poor bioavailability is paramount amongst the potential problems that can be encountered when delivering an active agent via the oral route. Drug absorption from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can be limited by a variety of factors with the most significant contributors being poor aqueous solubility and/or poor membrane permeability of the drug molecule. When delivering an active agent orally, it must first dissolve in gastric and/or intestinal fluids before it can then permeate the membranes of the GI tract to reach systemic circulation. Therefore, a drug with poor aqueous solubility will typically exhibit dissolution rate limited absorption, and a drug with poor membrane permeability will typically exhibit permeation rate limited absorption. Hence, two areas of pharmaceutical research that focus on improving the oral bioavailability of active agents include: (i) enhancing solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs and (ii) enhancing permeability of poorly permeable drugs. In this article, solubility and dissolution will be discussed.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences Vol.2(1) 2013: 33-41