Morphological and immunological characterization of anthrax vaccine in cattle
Keywords:Characterization, anthrax, vaccine
Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis that normally affects animals, especially ruminants (such as cattle, goats, sheep, and horses) and humans. This study was planned to characterize the morphology of anthrax vaccine bacteria by using Grams stain, polychrome methylene blue stain, culture on nutrient agar and nutrient broth media and to determine the immunological status of this vaccine by indirect ELISA and slide agglutination test in cattle. Antibiotic sensitivity test of vaccine strain of bacteria was also done. This study provided evidence that vaccine strain of Bacillus anthracis was gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria appeared as single to short-chained bacilli with blunted ends. Serum from anthrax vaccinated cattle agglutinated anthrax antigen on Day 30 (+++ within 5 min and ++ within 7 min at 1:100 dilution of test sera) and Day 90 (+++ within 5 min at 1:100 dilution of test sera) of post immunization. Immunization of cattle with anthrax vaccine generated high level of anti-anthrax IgG antibody response at Day 30 (0.789}0.014) of post immunization and reached its peak at Day 90 (0.991}0.047). This study also provided evidence that anthrax vaccine bacteria were sensitive to penicillin, streptomycin, amoxicillin and kenamycin. It may be recommended that the anthrax vaccine currently in use in Bangladesh is proved to be effective in term of morphology of Bacillus antharis and raising anti anthrax IgG antibody response in cattle with no side effect.
Bangl. J. Vet. Med. (2013). 11 (1): 43-49