IMPORTANT VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES WITH THEIR ZOONOTIC POTENTIAL: PRESENT SITUATION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVE
Keywords:Vector-borne diseases, zoonotic potential, future perspective
Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) of zoonotic importance are the global threat in the human life and on animal welfare as well. Many vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) have appeared in new regions in the past two decades, while many endemic diseases have increased in incidence. Although introductions and emergence of endemic pathogens are often considered to be distinct processes, many endemic pathogens are actually spreading at a local scale coincident with habitat change. Key differences between dynamics and diseases burden result from increased pathogen transmission following habitat change, deforestation and introduction life into new regions. Local emergence of VBPs are commonly driven by changing in ecology (deforestation, massive natural calamities, civil wares etc.), altered human behavior, enhanced enzootic cycles, pathogen invasion from anthropogenic trade and travel, genomic changes of pathogens to coup up with the new hosts, vectors, and climatic conditions and adaptability in wildlife reservoirs. Once a pathogen is established, ecological factors related to vector and host characteristics can shape the evolutionary selective pressure and result in increased use of people as transmission hosts. West Nile virus (WNV), Nipah virus and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are among the best-understood zoonotic vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) to have emerged in the last two decades and showed just how explosive epidemics can be in new regions. Zoonotic VBPs that are likely introduced into new regions include Rift Valley Fever and Japanese Encephalitis viruses (JEV) in the Americas, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in Eurasia or Africa, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus (CCHFV) in new parts of Eurasia. Vector-borne diseases currently impose global burden on public health and animal welfare including widespread formerly zoonotic human diseases, such as malaria, leishmania and dengue fever, as well as zoonotic diseases for which humans are dead end hosts, such as Lyme disease, WNV and CCHF. It requires highly equipped laboratory facilities and technical manpower to address emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne zoonotic diseases. Financial and technological hurdles persist in developing countries, making diagnosis and control facility difficult where these diseases are stubbornly most prevalent. Development of technological and highly knowledgeable manpower is the key to protect public health and eco-health. An awareness building about the changing risk of VBPs to prevent introduction foreign pathogens is far more difficult because this is commonly an inevitable consequence of the globalization of trade and travel and in most cases is accidental. Designing of active surveillance of the deadly infectious pathogens by combining the expertise of veterinary and human health could play pivotal roles towards reducing burden of VBPs. History suggests that successful control of VBPs requires prompt identification, swift action, mobilization of fund for developing technical expertise and occasionally by using draconian social measures.
Bangl. J. Vet. Med. (2015). 13 (2): 1-14