TRANSBOUNDARY DISEASES AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEW
AbstractWildlife is the fauna and flora that are out of the control of man, although over the years common usage, public perceptions and history have practically defined wildlife as undomesticated free ranging terrestrial vertebrates which include reptiles, amphibians, birds, mammals excluding fishes. Wildlife play important roles in the epidemiology of emerging and re-emerging diseases either as vectors such as in rabies, primary target of disease such as in botulism and reservoirs such as in tularemia, Ebola virus disease (EVD), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) . These diseases usually transcend national and regional borders causing high mortalities and morbidities. The transboundary nature of such epidemics and the collaborative efforts in combating the scourge was investigated using published literature. Wildlife has been incriminated in the occurrence and spread of various diseases many of which led to loss of lives and have the potentials of being pandemic. Diseases were promptly controlled in cases where collaborative efforts were applied in the management. Since the world is now a single global village, advanced collaborative strategic guidelines should be established for implementation and prevention of future pathogenic zoonosis within states, regions, continents and globally. Transboundary public health education of the citizenry will be of immense importance in the control and prevention of these diseases. Sustainable development goals (SDGS), poverty alleviation, enhanced culture and eco-tourism may not be realizable in the face of ignorance and disease. Highly pathogenic emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases and epidemics involving wildlife have grave consequences on national, regional, continental and world economies. These could however be prevented and controlled through multifaceted collaborative efforts and cooperation transcending geographical borders so that the planet can be rescued from the raging scourge of disease.