MACROANATOMICAL ASPECTS OF BRACHIAL PLEXUS AND ITS BRANCHES IN THE INDIGENOUS DUCK
AbstractThe injury to the peripheral nervous system is common clinical problem especially injury to the wing is the most common in birds. The present study aimed to document the detailed features of the morphological structure and the innervations areas of the brachial plexus in indigenous duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). A total of six mature indigenous ducks (three of them were male and three were female) were used in this study. After administering an anesthetic to the birds, the body cavities were opened. The birds were fixed with formaldehyde after draining of the blood. The nerves of the brachial plexus were dissected separately and photographed. The brachial plexus was formed by the union of the ventral branches of 14thand 15th cervical spinal nerve and 1st, 2nd and 3rd thoracic spinal nerves, which were confirmed by palpation and counting the cervical vertebrae. Present study revealed that few small and large branches originated from brachial plexus and innervated into the specific muscles and their adjacent structure. Five nerve roots formed three nerve trunks in the duck, which constitute the dorsal and ventral cords. The pectoral trunk and median-ulnar nerve originated from ventral cord, while dorsal cord gives axillary nerve continued as a radial nerve into the wing of duck. The axillary nerve innervated into to skin of the dorsal side of the wing and shoulder deltoideous muscles, coracobrachialis muscles and propatagiasis cervical muscles. The radial nerve innervated to the humuro-brachial and triceps muscles, extensor carpi radial and supinator muscles. The ulnar nerve innervated extensor aspect of joint, flexor carpi ulnar muscles and superficial flexor muscle. The median nerve innervated into the median surface of the brachial and metacarpal region, flexor carpi radial muscle, pronator teres muscles, superficial and profound digital flexor muscles. The general macroanatomical shape of the brachial plexus and the distribution of the nerves originating from this plexus displayed some differences from other birds.