NITROXYNIL UNCOUPLES OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION IN THE CELL MITOCHONDRIA AND A DRUG WHEREVER INJECTABLES ARE PREFERRED OVER DRENCHES
AbstractIn the absence of effective vaccines and because of practical limitations in management options to control the snail intermediate hosts, the control of liver fluke infection and disease in livestock relies heavily on the use of flukicidal anthelmintics. Nitroxynil is a nitrate derivative from benzene compounds and presents a flukicide effect and is commonly used as the one with best spectrum from all the nitrate derivative trematocides. The drug is in fact, a low spectrum anthelmintic effective against fascioliasis, an important parasitic disease caused by flukes like Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, affecting significantly the ruminant production by means of reducing the growth, conversion rate, milk production, quality and quantity of meat and reproduction. Nitroxynil also does hold efficacy against few roundworms mainly blood-sucking species as well as certain myiasis. It is not effective against most of the tape worms or external parasites. It is chemically constitute of yellow benzene crystals, slightly soluble in water and soluble in organic solvents, almost odorless and is characterized for being a stable solution, but it precipitates in presence of calcium and other salts. It is marketed as bright orange-red injectable solution due that by this route is six times more efficient than by oral route. Nitroxynil is a safe drug and it can be used at any stage of pregnancy. It does not affect fertility, gestation or fetus formation and in no way impede the reproductive performance of stallions. Its presented as two salts, nitroxynil megaglumine and nitroxynil eglumine. The nitroxynil in salt is hydrosoluble having neutral pH and is exclusively administered to animals by subcutaneous route. The flukicide resistance phenomenon is already present in many countries in the same way that resistance against other anthelmintic drugs is spreading around worldwide. Because of the absence of new drugs against fluke infections, it is necessary to prove and compare the efficacy of the anthelmintics to prevent resistance development. In view of that we endeavored elucidating the latest progress of one such widely used flukicide nitroxynil.